Philippine Media Wiki

Lua error in Module:Hatnote_group at line 26: attempt to call field 'defaultClasses' (a nil value).

<templatestyles src="Module:Infobox/styles.css"></templatestyles>

North America
File:Location North America.svg
Area24.709 million km2 (9.54 million sq mi) (3rd)
Population592,296,233 (2021; 4th)
Population density25.7/km2 (66.4/sq mi) (2021)[lower-alpha 1]
GDP (PPP)$30.61 trillion (2022 est.; 2nd)[1]
GDP (nominal)$29.01 trillion (2022 est.; 2nd)[2]
GDP per capita$57,410 (2022 est.; 2nd)[3]
Religions<templatestyles src="Plainlist/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Christianity (74.6%)[4][5]
  • No religion (19.2%)[5]
  • Judaism (1.6%)[5]
  • Islam (1.3%)[5]
  • Buddhism (1.2%)[5]
  • Hinduism (0.8%)[5]
  • Other (1.3%)[5]
DemonymNorth American
Countries23 sovereign states
Dependencies23 non-sovereign territories
LanguagesEnglish, Spanish, French, Dutch, Danish, indigenous languages, and many others
Time zonesUTC−10:00 to UTC±00:00
Largest citiesList of urban areas:[6]
<templatestyles src="Hlist/styles.css"></templatestyles>
UN M49 code003 – North America
File:Map of populous North America (physical, political, population).jpg

A map of North America's physical, political, and population characteristics as of 2018

North America is a continent[lower-alpha 2] in the Northern and Western Hemispheres.[lower-alpha 3] North America is bordered to the north by the Arctic Ocean, to the east by the Atlantic Ocean, to the southeast by South America and the Caribbean Sea, and to the west and south by the Pacific Ocean. Greater North America includes the Bahamas, Bermuda, Canada, the Caribbean, Central America, Clipperton Island, Greenland, Mexico, Saint Pierre and Miquelon, Turks and Caicos Islands, and the United States.

Continental North America covers an area of about 24,709,000 square kilometers (9,540,000 square miles), representing approximately 16.5% of the Earth's land area and 4.8% of its total surface area. It is the third-largest continent by size after Asia and Africa, and the fourth-largest continent by population after Asia, Africa, and Europe. As of 2021, North America's population was estimated as over 592 million people in 23 independent states, or about 7.5% of the world's population. In human geography, the terms "North America" and "North American" sometimes refer to just Canada, the United States, Mexico, and Greenland.[7][8][9][10][11]

It is unknown with certainty how and when first human populations first reached North America. People were known to live in the Americas at least 20,000 years ago[12] but various evidence points to possibly earlier dates.[13][14] The Paleo-Indian period in North America followed the Last Glacial Period, and lasted until about 10,000 years ago when the Archaic period began. The classic stage followed the Archaic period, and lasted from approximately the 6th to 13th centuries. Beginning in 1000 AD, the Norse were the first Europeans to begin exploring and ultimately colonizing areas of North America.

In 1492, the exploratory voyages of Christopher Columbus led to a transatlantic exchange, including migrations of European settlers during the Age of Discovery and the early modern period. Present-day cultural and ethnic patterns reflect interactions between European colonists, indigenous peoples, African slaves, immigrants from Europe, Asia, and descendants of these respective groups.

Europe's colonization in North America led to most North Americans speaking European languages, such as English, Spanish, and French, and the cultures of the region commonly reflect Western traditions. However, relatively small parts of North America in Canada, the United States, Mexico, and Central America have indigenous populations that continue adhering to their respective pre-European colonial cultural and linguistic traditions.


File:Historisch Nordamerika (cropped).jpg

A 1621 map of North America

The Americas were named after the Italian explorer Amerigo Vespucci by German cartographers Martin Waldseemüller and Matthias Ringmann.[15] Vespucci explored South America between 1497 and 1502, and was the first European to suggest that the Americas represented a landmass not then known to Europeans. In 1507, Waldseemüller published a world map, and placed the word "America" on the continent of present-day South America.[16] The continent north of present-day Mexico was then referred to as Parias.[17] On a 1553 world map published by Petrus Apianus,[18] North America was called "Baccalearum", meaning "realm of the Cod fish", in reference to the abundance of cod fish on the East Coast.[19]

Waldseemüller used the Latin version of Vespucci's name, Americus Vespucius, in its feminine form of "America", following the examples of "Europa", "Asia", and "Africa". Map makers later extended the name America to North America.

In 1538, Gerardus Mercator used the term America on his world map of the entire Western Hemisphere.[20] On his subsequent 1569 map, Mercator called North America "America or New India" (America sive India Nova).[21]

The Spanish Empire called its territories in North and South America "Las Indias", and the name given to the state body that oversaw the region was called the Council of the Indies.


File:North America satellite orthographic.jpg

A 2005 NASA satellite image of North America

The United Nations and its statistics division recognize North America as including three regions: Northern America, Central America, and the Caribbean.[22] "Northern America" is a distinct term from "North America", excluding Central America, which itself may or may not include Mexico. In the limited context of regional trade agreements, the term is used to reference three nations: Canada, the United States, and Mexico.

France, Italy, Portugal, Spain, Romania, Greece, and the countries of Latin America use a six-continent model, with the Americas viewed as a single continent and North America designating a subcontinent comprising Canada, the United States, Mexico, and Saint Pierre and Miquelon (politically part of France), and often including Greenland and Bermuda.[23][24][25][26][27]

North America has historically been known by other names, including Spanish North America, New Spain, and América Septentrional, the first official name given to Mexico.[28]


North America includes several regions and subregions, each of which have their own respective cultural, economic, and geographic regions. Economic regions include several regions formalized in 20th- and 21st-century trade agreements, including NAFTA between Canada, Mexico, and the United States, and CAFTA between Central America, the Dominican Republic, and the United States.

North America is divided linguistically and culturally into two primary regions, Anglo-America and Latin America. Anglo-America includes most of North America, Belize, and Caribbean islands with English-speaking populations. There are also regions, including Louisiana and Quebec, with large Francophone populations; in Quebec, French is the official language.[29].

The southern portion of North America includes Central America and non-English speaking Caribbean nations.[30][31] The north of the continent maintains recognized regions as well. In contrast to the common definition of North America, which encompasses the whole North American continent, the term "North America" is sometimes used more narrowly to refer only to four nations, Canada, Greenland, Mexico, and the U.S.[32][33][34][35][36] The U.S. Census Bureau includes Saint Pierre and Miquelon, but excludes Mexico from its definition.[37]

The term Northern America refers to the northernmost countries and territories of North America: the U.S., Bermuda, Canada, Greenland, and St. Pierre and Miquelon.[38][39] Although the term does not refer to a unified region,[40] Middle America includes Mexico, Central America, and the Caribbean.[41]

North America's largest countries by land area are Canada and the U.S., both of which have well-defined and recognized subregions. In Canada, these include (from east to west) Atlantic Canada, Central Canada, Canadian Prairies, the British Columbia Coast, and Northern Canada. In the U.S., they include New England, the Mid-Atlantic, South Atlantic states, East North Central states, West North Central states, East South Central states, West South Central states, Mountain states, and Pacific states. The Great Lakes region and the Pacific Northwest include areas in both Canada and the U.S.

Countries, dependencies, and other territories[]

Arms Flag Country / Territory[42][43] Area[44] Population
Capital Name(s) in official language(s) ISO 3166-1
Template:Coat of arms Template:Flagg Anguilla
(United Kingdom)
91 km2
(35 sq mi)
15,753 164.8/km2
(427/sq mi)
The Valley Anguilla AIA
Template:Coat of arms Template:Flagg Antigua and Barbuda 442 km2
(171 sq mi)
93,219 199.1/km2
(516/sq mi)
St. John's Antigua and Barbuda ATG
Template:Coat of arms Template:Flagg Aruba
(Kingdom of the Netherlands)[lower-alpha 4]
180 km2
(69 sq mi)
106,537 594.4/km2
(1,539/sq mi)
Oranjestad Aruba ABW
Template:Coat of arms Template:Flagg The Bahamas[lower-alpha 5] 13,943 km2
(5,383 sq mi)
407,906 24.5/km2
(63/sq mi)
Nassau Bahamas BHS
Template:Coat of arms Template:Flagg Barbados 430 km2
(170 sq mi)
281,200 595.3/km2
(1,542/sq mi)
Bridgetown Barbados BRB
Template:Coat of arms Template:Flagg Belize 22,966 km2
(8,867 sq mi)
400,031 13.4/km2
(35/sq mi)
Belmopan Belize BLZ
Template:Coat of arms Template:Flagg Bermuda
(United Kingdom)
54 km2
(21 sq mi)
64,185 1,203.7/km2
(3,118/sq mi)
Hamilton Bermuda BMU
Template:Coat of arms Template:Flagg Bonaire
(Kingdom of the Netherlands)[lower-alpha 4][47]
294 km2
(114 sq mi)
12,093 41.1/km2
(106/sq mi)
Kralendijk Boneiru BES
Template:Coat of arms Template:Flagg British Virgin Islands
(United Kingdom)
151 km2
(58 sq mi)
31,122 152.3/km2
(394/sq mi)
Road Town British Virgin Islands VGB
Template:Coat of arms Template:Flagg Canada 9,984,670 km2
(3,855,100 sq mi)
38,155,012 3.7/km2
(9.6/sq mi)
Ottawa Canada CAN
Template:Coat of arms Template:Flagg Cayman Islands
(United Kingdom)
264 km2
(102 sq mi)
68,136 212.1/km2
(549/sq mi)
George Town Cayman Islands CYM
Template:Coat of arms Template:Flagg Clipperton Island (France) 6 km2
(2.3 sq mi)
0 0/km2
(0/sq mi)
Île de Clipperton CPT
Template:Coat of arms Template:Flagg Costa Rica 51,100 km2
(19,700 sq mi)
5,153,957 89.6/km2
(232/sq mi)
San José Costa Rica CRI
Template:Coat of arms Template:Flagg Cuba 109,886 km2
(42,427 sq mi)
11,256,372 102.0/km2
(264/sq mi)
Havana Cuba CUB
Template:Coat of arms Template:Flagg Curaçao
(Kingdom of the Netherlands)[lower-alpha 4]
444 km2
(171 sq mi)
190,338 317.1/km2
(821/sq mi)
Willemstad Kòrsou CUW
Template:Coat of arms Template:Flagg Dominica 751 km2
(290 sq mi)
72,412 89.2/km2
(231/sq mi)
Roseau Dominica DMA
Template:Coat of arms Template:Flagg Dominican Republic 48,671 km2
(18,792 sq mi)
11,117,873 207.3/km2
(537/sq mi)
Santo Domingo República Dominicana DOM
Template:Coat of arms Template:Flagg El Salvador 21,041 km2
(8,124 sq mi)
6,314,167 293.0/km2
(759/sq mi)
San Salvador El Salvador SLV
Template:Coat of arms Template:Flagg Federal Dependencies of Venezuela
342 km2
(132 sq mi)
2,155 6.3/km2
(16/sq mi)
Gran Roque Dependencias Federales de Venezuela VEN-W
Template:Coat of arms Template:Flagg Greenland
(Kingdom of Denmark)
2,166,086 km2
(836,330 sq mi)
56,243 0.026/km2
(0.067/sq mi)
Nuuk Kalaallit Nunaat/Grønland GRL
Template:Coat of arms Template:Flagg Grenada 344 km2
(133 sq mi)
124,610 302.3/km2
(783/sq mi)
St. George's Gwinàd GRD
File:Coat of arms of Guadeloupe.svg Template:Flagg Guadeloupe
1,628 km2
(629 sq mi)
396,051 246.7/km2
(639/sq mi)
Basse-Terre Gwadloup GLP
File:Coat of arms of Guatemala.svg Template:Flagg Guatemala 108,889 km2
(42,042 sq mi)
17,608,483 128.8/km2
(334/sq mi)
Guatemala City Guatemala GTM
File:Coat of arms of Haiti.svg Template:Flagg Haiti 27,750 km2
(10,710 sq mi)
11,447,569 361.5/km2
(936/sq mi)
Port-au-Prince Ayiti/Haïti HTI
Template:Coat of arms Template:Flagg Honduras 112,492 km2
(43,433 sq mi)
10,278,345 66.4/km2
(172/sq mi)
Tegucigalpa Honduras HND
Template:Coat of arms Template:Flagg Jamaica 10,991 km2
(4,244 sq mi)
2,827,695 247.4/km2
(641/sq mi)
Kingston Jumieka JAM
File:BlasonMartinique.svg Template:Flagg Martinique
1,128 km2
(436 sq mi)
368,796 352.6/km2
(913/sq mi)
Fort-de-France Martinique/Matinik MTQ
File:Coat of arms of Mexico.svg Template:Flagg Mexico 1,964,375 km2
(758,449 sq mi)
126,705,138 57.1/km2
(148/sq mi)
Mexico City México MEX
Template:Coat of arms Template:Flagg Montserrat
(United Kingdom)
102 km2
(39 sq mi)
4,417 58.8/km2
(152/sq mi)
Brades[lower-alpha 6]
Montserrat MSR
Template:Coat of arms Template:Flagg Nicaragua 130,373 km2
(50,337 sq mi)
6,850,540 44.1/km2
(114/sq mi)
Managua Nicaragua NIC
File:Coat of arms of Nueva Esparta State.svg Template:Flagg Nueva Esparta
1,151 km2
(444 sq mi)
491,610 427.1/km2
(1,106/sq mi)
La Asunción Nueva Esparta VEN-O
Template:Coat of arms Template:Flagg Panama[lower-alpha 4][lower-alpha 7] 75,417 km2
(29,119 sq mi)
4,351,267 45.8/km2
(119/sq mi)
Panama City Panamá PAN
Template:Coat of arms Template:Flagg Puerto Rico
(United States)
8,870 km2
(3,420 sq mi)
3,256,028 448.9/km2
(1,163/sq mi)
San Juan Puerto Rico PRI
Template:Coat of arms Template:Flagg Saba
(Kingdom of the Netherlands)[47]
13 km2
(5 sq mi)
1,537 118.2/km2
(306/sq mi)
The Bottom Saba BES
File:Escudo de San Andrés y Providencia.svg Template:Flagg San Andrés and Providencia
53 km2
(20 sq mi)
77,701 1,468.59/km2
(3,803.6/sq mi)
San Andrés San Andrés COL-SAP
Template:Coat of arms Template:Flagg Saint Barthélemy
21 km2
(8.1 sq mi)[49]
7,448 354.7/km2
(919/sq mi)
Gustavia Saint-Barthélemy BLM
Template:Coat of arms Template:Flagg Saint Kitts and Nevis 261 km2
(101 sq mi)
47,606 199.2/km2
(516/sq mi)
Basseterre Saint Kitts and Nevis KNA
Template:Coat of arms Template:Flagg Saint Lucia 539 km2
(208 sq mi)
179,651 319.1/km2
(826/sq mi)
Castries Sainte-Lucie LCA
Template:Coat of arms Template:Flagg Saint Martin
54 km2
(21 sq mi)[49]
29,820 552.2/km2
(1,430/sq mi)
Marigot Saint-Martin MAF
Template:Coat of arms Template:Flagg Saint Pierre and Miquelon
242 km2
(93 sq mi)
5,883 24.8/km2
(64/sq mi)
Saint-Pierre Saint-Pierre-et-Miquelon SPM
Template:Coat of arms Template:Flagg Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 389 km2
(150 sq mi)
104,332 280.2/km2
(726/sq mi)
Kingstown Saint Vincent and the Grenadines VCT
Template:Coat of arms Template:Flagg Sint Eustatius
(Kingdom of the Netherlands)[47]
21 km2
(8.1 sq mi)
2,739 130.4/km2
(338/sq mi)
Oranjestad Sint Eustatius BES
Template:Coat of arms Template:Flagg Sint Maarten
(Kingdom of the Netherlands)
34 km2
(13 sq mi)
44,042 1,176.7/km2
(3,048/sq mi)
Philipsburg Sint Maarten SXM
Template:Coat of arms Template:Flagg Trinidad and Tobago[lower-alpha 4] 5,130 km2
(1,980 sq mi)
1,525,663 261.0/km2
(676/sq mi)
Port of Spain Trinidad and Tobago TTO
File:Shield of the Turks and Caicos Islands.svg Template:Flagg Turks and Caicos Islands
(United Kingdom)[lower-alpha 8]
948 km2
(366 sq mi)
45,114 34.8/km2
(90/sq mi)
Grand Turk (Cockburn Town) Turks and Caicos Islands TCA
Template:Coat of arms Template:Flagg United States[lower-alpha 9] 9,629,091 km2
(3,717,813 sq mi)
336,997,624 32.7/km2
(85/sq mi)
Washington, D.C. United States of America USA
File:Seal of the United States Virgin Islands.svg Template:Flagg United States Virgin Islands
(United States)
347 km2
(134 sq mi)
100,091 317.0/km2
(821/sq mi)
Charlotte Amalie US Virgin Islands VIR
Total 24,500,995 km2
(9,459,887 sq mi)
583,473,912 22.1/km2
(57/sq mi)

Natural characteristics[]


File:Physical Features of North America map by Tom Patterson v. 1.01, meters.jpg

North America's landforms and land cover depicted in a 2021 map

File:Saguaro National Park - Flickr - Joe Parks.jpg

The Sonoran Desert in Arizona

File:Moraine Lake 17092005.jpg

Moraine Lake in Banff National Park in Alberta

File:Nuuk city below Sermitsiaq.JPG

Nuuk, the capital of Greenland

North America occupies the northern portion of the landmass generally referred to as the New World, the Western Hemisphere, the Americas, or simply America, which, in many countries, is considered a single continent[50][51][52] with North America a subcontinent.[53][54][55] North America is the third-largest continent by area after Asia and Africa.[56][57]

North America's only land connection to South America is in present-day Panama at the Darien Gap on the Colombia-Panama border, placing almost all of Panama within North America.[58][59][60] Alternatively, some geologists physiographically locate its southern limit at the Isthmus of Tehuantepec, Mexico, with Central America extending southeastward to South America from this point.[61] The Caribbean islands, or West Indies, are considered part of North America.[54] The continental coastline is long and irregular. The Gulf of Mexico is the largest body of water indenting the continent, followed by Hudson Bay. Others include the Gulf of Saint Lawrence and the Gulf of California.

Before the Central American isthmus formed, the region had been underwater. The islands of the West Indies delineate a submerged former land bridge, which had connected North and South America via what are now Florida and Venezuela.

There are several islands off the continent's coasts; principally, the Arctic Archipelago, the Bahamas, Turks and Caicos, the Greater and Lesser Antilles, the Aleutian Islands (some of which are in the Eastern Hemisphere proper), the Alexander Archipelago, the many thousand islands of the British Columbia Coast, and Newfoundland. Greenland, a self-governing Danish island, and the world's largest, is on the same tectonic plate (the North American Plate) and is part of North America geographically. In a geologic sense, Bermuda is not part of the Americas, but an oceanic island that was formed on the fissure of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge over 100 million years ago (mya). The nearest landmass to it is Cape Hatteras, North Carolina. However, Bermuda is often thought of as part of North America, especially given its historical, political and cultural ties to Virginia and other parts of the continent.

The vast majority of North America is on the North American Plate. Parts of western Mexico, including Baja California, and of California, including the cities of San Diego, Los Angeles, and Santa Cruz, lie on the eastern edge of the Pacific Plate, with the two plates meeting along the San Andreas fault. The southernmost portion of the continent and much of the West Indies lie on the Caribbean Plate, whereas the Juan de Fuca and Cocos plates border the North American Plate on its western frontier.

The continent can be divided into four great regions (each of which contains many subregions): the Great Plains stretching from the Gulf of Mexico to the Canadian Arctic; the geologically young, mountainous west, including the Rocky Mountains, the Great Basin, California and Alaska; the raised but relatively flat plateau of the Canadian Shield in the northeast; and the varied eastern region, which includes the Appalachian Mountains, the coastal plain along the Atlantic seaboard, and the Florida peninsula. Mexico, with its long plateaus and cordilleras, falls largely in the western region, although the eastern coastal plain does extend south along the Gulf.

The western mountains are split in the middle into the main range of the Rockies and the coast ranges in California, Oregon, Washington, and British Columbia, with the Great Basin—a lower area containing smaller ranges and low-lying deserts—in between. The highest peak is Denali in Alaska.

The U.S. Geographical Survey (USGS) states that the geographic center of North America is "6 miles [10 km] west of Balta, Pierce County, North Dakota" at about <templatestyles src="Module:Coordinates/styles.css"></templatestyles>48°10′N 100°10′W / 48.167°N 100.167°W / 48.167; -100.167

Fatal error: The format of the coordinate could not be determined. Parsing failed.

, about 24 kilometers (15 mi) from Rugby, North Dakota. The USGS further states that "No marked or monumented point has been established by any government agency as the geographic center of either the 50 states, the conterminous United States, or the North American continent."[62] Nonetheless, there is a 4.6-meter (15 ft) field stone obelisk in Rugby claiming to mark the center. The North American continental pole of inaccessibility is located 1,650 km (1,030 mi) from the nearest coastline, between Allen and Kyle, South Dakota at <templatestyles src="Module:Coordinates/styles.css"></templatestyles>43°22′N 101°58′W / 43.36°N 101.97°W / 43.36; -101.97 (Pole of Inaccessibility North America)

Fatal error: The format of the coordinate could not be determined. Parsing failed.



Geologic history[]


The principal water divisions in Canada, the United States, and Mexico

Laurentia is an ancient craton which forms the geologic core of North America; it formed between 1.5 and 1.0 billion years ago during the Proterozoic eon.[64] The Canadian Shield is the largest exposure of this craton. From the Late Paleozoic to Early Mesozoic eras, North America was joined with the other modern-day continents as part of the supercontinent Pangaea, with Eurasia to its east. One of the results of the formation of Pangaea was the Appalachian Mountains, which formed some 480 mya, making it among the oldest mountain ranges in the world. When Pangaea began to rift around 200 mya, North America became part of Laurasia, before it separated from Eurasia as its own continent during the mid-Cretaceous period.[65] The Rockies and other western mountain ranges began forming around this time from a period of mountain building called the Laramide orogeny, between 80 and 55 mya. The formation of the Isthmus of Panama that connected the continent to South America arguably occurred approximately 12 to 15 mya,[66] and the Great Lakes (as well as many other northern freshwater lakes and rivers) were carved by receding glaciers about 10,000 years ago.

North America is the source of much of what humanity knows about geologic time periods.[67] The geographic area that would later become the United States has been the source of more varieties of dinosaurs than any other modern country.[67] According to paleontologist Peter Dodson, this is primarily due to stratigraphy, climate and geography, human resources, and history.[67] Much of the Mesozoic Era is represented by exposed outcrops in the many arid regions of the continent.[67] The most significant Late Jurassic dinosaur-bearing fossil deposit in North America is the Morrison Formation of the western U.S.[68]


File:USGS Geologic Map of North America.jpg

A geologic map of North America published by the U.S. Geographical Survey

Canada is geographically one of the oldest regions in the world, with more than half of the region consisting of Precambrian rocks that have been above sea level since the beginning of the Palaeozoic era.[69] Canada's mineral resources are diverse and extensive.[69] Across the Canadian Shield and in the north there are large iron, nickel, zinc, copper, gold, lead, molybdenum, and uranium reserves. Large diamond concentrations have been recently developed in the Arctic,[70] making Canada one of the world's largest producers. Throughout the Shield, there are many mining towns extracting these minerals. The largest, and best known, is Sudbury, Ontario. Sudbury is an exception to the normal process of forming minerals in the Shield since there is significant evidence that the Sudbury Basin is an ancient meteorite impact crater. The nearby, but less-known Temagami Magnetic Anomaly has striking similarities to the Sudbury Basin. Its magnetic anomalies are very similar to the Sudbury Basin, and so it could be a second metal-rich impact crater.[71] The Shield is also covered by vast boreal forests that support an important logging industry.

United States[]

The lower 48 U.S. states can be divided into roughly five physiographic provinces:

  1. The American cordillera
  2. The Canadian Shield[69] Northern portion of the upper midwestern U.S.
  3. The stable platform
  4. The coastal plain
  5. The Appalachian orogenic belt

The geology of Alaska is typical of that of the cordillera, while the major islands of Hawaii consist of Neogene volcanics erupted over a hot spot.

<templatestyles src="Multiple image/styles.css" wrapper=".tmulti"></templatestyles>

A 2003 image of North America's bedrock and terrain
A 2015 map of North America's cratons and basement rocks

Central America[]

File:Tectonic plates Caribbean.png

Central America rests on the Caribbean Plate.

Central America is geologically active with volcanic eruptions and earthquakes occurring from time to time. In 1976 Guatemala was hit by a major earthquake, killing 23,000 people; Managua, the capital of Nicaragua, was devastated by earthquakes in 1931 and 1972, the last one killing about 5,000 people; three earthquakes devastated El Salvador, one in 1986 and two in 2001; one earthquake devastated northern and central Costa Rica in 2009, killing at least 34 people; in Honduras a powerful earthquake killed seven people in 2009.

Volcanic eruptions are common in the region. In 1968 the Arenal Volcano, in Costa Rica, erupted and killed 87 people. Fertile soils from weathered volcanic lavas have made it possible to sustain dense populations in agriculturally productive highland areas.

Central America has many mountain ranges; the longest are the Sierra Madre de Chiapas, the Cordillera Isabelia, and the Cordillera de Talamanca. Between the mountain ranges lie fertile valleys that are suitable for the people; in fact, most of the population of Honduras, Costa Rica, and Guatemala live in valleys. Valleys are also suitable for the production of coffee, beans, and other crops.


File:Koppen-Geiger Map North America present.svg

A Köppen climate classification map of North America

North America is a very large continent that extends from north of the Arctic Circle to south of the Tropic of Cancer. Greenland, along with the Canadian Shield, is tundra with average temperatures ranging from 10 to 20 °C (50 to 68 °F), but central Greenland is composed of a very large ice sheet. This tundra radiates throughout Canada, but its border ends near the Rocky Mountains (but still contains Alaska) and at the end of the Canadian Shield, near the Great Lakes. Climate west of the Cascade Range is described as being temperate weather with average precipitation 20 inches (510 millimeters).[72] Climate in coastal California is described to be Mediterranean, with average temperatures in cities like San Francisco ranging from 57 to 70 °F (14 to 21 °C) over the course of the year.[73]

Stretching from the East Coast to eastern North Dakota, and stretching down to Kansas, is the humid continental climate featuring intense seasons, with a large amount of annual precipitation, with places like New York City averaging 50 in (1,300 mm).[74] Starting at the southern border of the humid continental climate and stretching to the Gulf of Mexico (whilst encompassing the eastern half of Texas) is the humid subtropical climate. This area has the wettest cities in the contiguous U.S., with annual precipitation reaching 67 in (1,700 mm) in Mobile, Alabama.[75] Stretching from the borders of the humid continental and subtropical climates, and going west to the Sierra Nevada, south to the southern tip of Durango, north to the border with tundra climate, the steppe/desert climates are the driest in the United States.[76] Highland climates cut from north to south of the continent, where subtropical or temperate climates occur just below the tropics, as in central Mexico and Guatemala. Tropical climates appear in the island regions and in the subcontinent's bottleneck, found in countries and states bathed by the Caribbean Sea or to the south of the Gulf of Mexico and the Pacific Ocean.[77] Precipitation patterns vary across the region, and as such rainforest, monsoon, and savanna types can be found, with rains and high temperatures throughout the year.


Notable North American fauna include the bison, black bear, jaguar, cougar, prairie dog, turkey, pronghorn, raccoon, coyote, and monarch butterfly. Notable plants that were domesticated in North America include tobacco, maize, squash, tomato, sunflower, blueberry, avocado, cotton, chile pepper, and vanilla.


Pre-Columbian era[]

File:America 1000 BCE.png

A map of subsistence methods in the Americas, including North America, as of 1000 BCE <templatestyles src="Legend/styles.css" />

<templatestyles src="Legend/styles.css" /> <templatestyles src="Legend/styles.css" />
  Complex agricultural societies, including tribal chiefdoms and civilizations

The indigenous peoples of the Americas have many creation myths by which they assert that they have been present on the land since its creation,[78] but there is no evidence that humans evolved there.[79] The specifics of the initial settlement of the Americas by ancient Asians are subject to ongoing research and discussion.[80] The traditional theory has been that hunters entered the Bering Land Bridge between eastern Siberia and present-day Alaska from 27,000 to 14,000 years ago.[81][82][lower-alpha 10] A growing viewpoint is that the first American inhabitants sailed from Beringia some 13,000 years ago,[84] with widespread habitation of the Americas during the end of the Last Glacial Period, in what is known as the Late Glacial Maximum, around 12,500 years ago.[85] The oldest petroglyphs in North America date from 15,000 to 10,000 years before present.[86][lower-alpha 11] Genetic research and anthropology indicate additional waves of migration from Asia via the Bering Strait during the Early-Middle Holocene.[88][89][90]

Prior to the arrival of European explorers and colonists in North America, the natives of North America were divided into many different polities, ranging from small bands of a few families to large empires. They lived in several culture areas, which roughly correspond to geographic and biological zones that defined the representative cultures and lifestyles of the indigenous people who lived there, including the bison hunters of the Great Plains and the farmers of Mesoamerica. Native groups also are classified by their language families, which included Athapascan and Uto-Aztecan languages. Indigenous peoples with similar languages did not always share the same material culture, however, and were not necessarily always allies. Anthropologists speculate that the Inuit of the high Arctic arrived in North America much later than other native groups, evidenced by the disappearance of Dorset culture artifacts from the archaeological record and their replacement by the Thule people.

During the thousands of years of native habitation on the continent, cultures changed and shifted. One of the oldest yet discovered is the Clovis culture (c. 9550–9050 BCE) in modern New Mexico.[87] Later groups include the Mississippian culture and related Mound building cultures, found in the Mississippi River valley and the Pueblo culture of what is now the Four Corners. The more southern cultural groups of North America were responsible for the domestication of many common crops now used around the world, such as tomatoes, squash, and maize. As a result of the development of agriculture in the south, many other cultural advances were made there. The Mayans developed a writing system, built huge pyramids and temples, had a complex calendar, and developed the concept of zero around 400 CE.[91]

The first recorded European references to North America are in Norse sagas where it is referred to as Vinland.[92] The earliest verifiable instance of pre-Columbian trans-oceanic contact by any European culture with the North America mainland has been dated to around 1000 CE.[93] The site, situated at the northernmost extent of the island named Newfoundland, has provided unmistakable evidence of Norse settlement.[94] Norse explorer Leif Erikson (c. 970–1020 CE) is thought to have visited the area.[lower-alpha 12] Erikson was the first European to make landfall on the continent (excluding Greenland).[96][97]

The Mayan culture was still present in southern Mexico and Guatemala when the Spanish conquistadors arrived, but political dominance in the area had shifted to the Aztec Empire, whose capital city Tenochtitlan was located further north in the Valley of Mexico. The Aztecs were conquered in 1521 by Hernán Cortés.[98]

Post-contact, 1492–1910[]


A 1702 map of North America showing forts, towns, and (in solid colors) areas occupied by European colonial settlements

During the so-called Age of Discovery, Europeans explored overseas and staked claims to various parts of North America, much of which was already settled by indigenous peoples. Upon Europeans' arrival in the "New World", indigenous peoples had a variety of reactions, including curiosity, trading, cooperation, resignation, and resistance. The indigenous population declined substantially following European arrival, primarily due to the introduction of Eurasian diseases, such as smallpox, to which the indigenous peoples lacked immunity, and because of violent conflicts with Europeans.[99] Indigenous culture changed significantly and their affiliation with political and cultural groups also changed. Several linguistic groups died out, and others changed quite quickly.

On the North America's southeastern coast, Spanish explorer Juan Ponce de León, who had accompanied Columbus's second voyage, visited and named in 1513 La Florida.[100] As the colonial period unfolded, Spain, England, and France appropriated and claimed extensive territories in North America eastern and southern coastlines. Spain established permanent settlements on the Caribbean islands of Hispaniola and Cuba in the 1490s, building cities, putting the resident indigenous populations to work, raising crops for Spanish settlers and panning gold to enrich the Spaniards. Much of the indigenous population died due to disease and overwork, spurring the Spaniards on to claim new lands and peoples. An expedition under the command of Spanish settler, Hernán Cortés, sailed westward in 1519 to what turned out to be the mainland in Mexico. With local indigenous allies, the Spanish conquered the Aztec empire in central Mexico in 1521. Spain then established permanent cities in Mexico, Central America, and Spanish South America in the sixteenth century. Once Spaniards conquered the high civilization of the Aztecs and Incas, the Caribbean was a backwater of the Spanish empire.

Other European powers began to intrude on areas claimed by Spain, including the Caribbean islands. France took the western half of Hispaniola and developed Saint-Domingue as a cane sugar producing colony worked by black slave labor. Britain took Barbados and Jamaica, and the Dutch and Danes took islands previously claimed by Spain. Britain did not begin settling on the North American mainland until a hundred years after the first Spanish settlements, since it sought first to control nearby Ireland.

English settlements[]

The first permanent English settlement was in Jamestown, Virginia in 1607, followed by additional colonial establishments on the east coast from present-day Georgia in the south to Massachusetts in the north, forming the Thirteen Colonies of British America. The English did not establish settlements north or east of the St. Lawrence Valley in present-day Canada until after the conclusion of the American Revolutionary War. Britain's early settlements in present-day Canada included St. John's, Newfoundland in 1630 and Halifax, Nova Scotia in 1749. The first permanent French settlement was in Quebec City, Quebec in 1608

Seven Years' War[]

With the British victory in the Seven Years' War, France in 1763 ceded to Britain its claims of North American territories east of the Mississippi River. Spain, in turn, gained rights to the territories west of Mississippi, which then served as a border between Spain and Britain's territorial claims. French colonists settled Illinois Country after several generations of experience on North America, migrating over the Mississippi River to regions where Spain was not present and where they were able to leverage their earlier Louisiana French settlements around the Gulf of Mexico. These early French settlers partnered with midwest indigenous tribes, and their mixed ancestry descendants later followed a westward expansion all the way to the Pacific Ocean on the present-day U.S. West Coast.

American Revolution[]

In 1776, after various attempts to reconcile differences with the British, the Thirteen Colonies in British America sent delegates to the Second Continental Congress in Philadelphia, who unanimously adopted the Declaration of Independence on July 4, 1776, written primarily by Thomas Jefferson, a member of the Committee of Five charged by the Second Continental Congress with authoring it. In the Declaration, the thirteen colonies declared their independence from the British monarchy, then governed by King George III, and detailed the factors that contributed to their decision. With the signing and issuance of the Declaration of Independence, the thirteen colonies formalized and escalated the American Revolutionary War, which had begun the year before at the Battles of Lexington and Concord on April 19, 1775. Gathered in Philadelphia following the war's outbreak, delegates from the thirteen colonies established the Continental Army from various patriot militias then engaged in resisting the British, and appointed George Washington as the Continental Army's military commander.

As the American Revolutionary War progressed, France and Spain, both then enemies of Britain, began to ultimately see the promise of a potential American victory in the war and began supporting Washington and the American Revolutionary cause. The British Army, in turn, was supported by Hessian military units from present-day Germany.

In 1783, after an eight-year attempt to defeat the American rebellion, King George III acknowledged Britain's defeat in the war, leading to the signing of the Treaty of Paris on September 3, 1783, which solidified the sovereign establishment of the United States.

Westward expansion[]

By the late 18th century, Russia was established on the Pacific Northwest northern coastline, where it was engaged in maritime fur trade and was supported by various indigenous settlements in the region. As a result, the Spanish were showing more interest in controlling the trade on the Pacific coast and mapped most of its coastline. The first Spanish settlements were attempted in Alta California during that period. Numerous overland explorations associated with voyageurs, fur trade, and U.S. led expeditions, including the Lewis and Clark, Frémont and Wilkes expeditions, reached the Pacific.

In 1803, during the presidency of Thomas Jefferson, the third U.S. president, Napoleon Bonaparte sold France's remaining North American territorial claims, which included regions west of the Mississippi River, to the U.S., in the Louisiana Purchase. Spain and the U.S. settled their western boundary dispute in 1819 in the Adams–Onís Treaty. Mexico fought a lengthy war for independence from Spain, winning it for Mexico (which included Central America at the time) in 1821. The U.S. sought further westward expansion and fought the Mexican–American War, gaining a vast territory that first Spain and then Mexico claimed but which they did not effectively control. Much of the area was in fact dominated by indigenous peoples, which did not recognize the claims of Spain, France, or the U.S. Russia sold its North American claims, which included the present-day U.S. state of Alaska, to the U.S. in 1867.

Canada and Panama Canal[]

In 1867, colonial settlers north of the United States, unified as the dominion of Canada. The U.S. sought to dig a canal across the Isthmus of Panama in present-day Panama in Central America, then a part of present-day Colombia. The U.S. aided Panamanians in a war that resulted in its separation from Colombia. The U.S. subsequently carved out the Panama Canal Zone, and claimed sovereignty over it. After decades of work, the Panama Canal was completed, which connected the Atlantic and Pacific oceans in 1913 and greatly facilitated global shipping navigation.


File:Non-Native American Nations Control over N America 1750-2008.gif

Non-native nations' control and claims over North America, c. 1750 to 2008

Canada and the United States are the wealthiest and most developed nations on the continent followed by Mexico, a newly industrialized country.[101] The countries of Central America and the Caribbean are at various levels of economic and human development. For example, small Caribbean island-nations, such as Barbados, Trinidad and Tobago, and Antigua and Barbuda, have a higher GDP (PPP) per capita than Mexico due to their smaller populations. Panama and Costa Rica have a significantly higher Human Development Index and GDP than the rest of the Central American nations.[102] Additionally, despite Greenland's vast resources in oil and minerals, much of them remain untapped, and the island is economically dependent on fishing, tourism, and subsidies from Denmark. Nevertheless, the island is highly developed.[103]

Demographically, North America is ethnically diverse. Its three main groups are Whites, Mestizos and Blacks.[104] There is a significant minority of Indigenous Americans and Asians among other less numerous groups.[104]


File:Langs N.Amer.png

Native languages of the United States, Canada, Greenland, and Northern Mexico

The dominant languages in North America are English, Spanish, and French. Danish is prevalent in Greenland alongside Greenlandic, and Dutch is spoken side by side local languages in the Dutch Caribbean. The term Anglo-America is used to refer to the anglophone countries of the Americas: namely Canada (where English and French are co-official) and the U.S., but also sometimes Belize and parts of the tropics, especially the Commonwealth Caribbean. Latin America refers to the other areas of the Americas (generally south of the U.S.) where the Romance languages, derived from Latin, of Spanish and Portuguese, (but French-speaking countries are not usually included) predominate: the other republics of Central America (but not always Belize), part of the Caribbean (not the Dutch-, English-, or French-speaking areas), Mexico, and most of South America (except Guyana, Suriname, French Guiana [France], and the Falkland Islands [UK]).

The French language has historically played a significant role in North America and now retains a distinctive presence in some regions. Canada is officially bilingual. French is the official language of the province of Quebec, where 95% of the people speak it as either their first or second language, and it is co-official with English in the province of New Brunswick. Other French-speaking locales include the province of Ontario (the official language is English, but there are an estimated 600,000 Franco-Ontarians), the province of Manitoba (co-official as de jure with English), the French West Indies and Saint-Pierre et Miquelon, as well as the U.S. state of Louisiana, where French is also an official language. Haiti is included with this group based on historical association but Haitians speak both Creole and French. Similarly, French and French Antillean Creole is spoken in Saint Lucia and the Commonwealth of Dominica alongside English.

A significant number of Indigenous languages are spoken in North America, with 372,000 people in the U.S. speaking an indigenous language at home,[105] about 225,000 in Canada[106] and roughly 6 million in Mexico.[107] In the U.S. and Canada, there are approximately 150 surviving indigenous languages of the 300 spoken prior to European contact.[108]


File:North America Religious Belief.svg

The percentage of people who identify with a religion in North America, according to 2010–2012 data

Christianity is the largest religion in the United States, Canada, and Mexico. According to a 2012 Pew Research Center survey, 77% of the population considered themselves Christians.[109] Christianity also is the predominant religion in the 23 dependent territories in North America.[110] The U.S. has the largest Christian population in the world, with nearly 247 million Christians (70%), although other countries have higher percentages of Christians among their populations.[111] Mexico has the world's second-largest number of Catholics, surpassed only by Brazil.[112]

According to the same study, the religiously unaffiliated (including agnostics and atheists) make up about 17% of the population of Canada and the U.S.[113] Those with no religious affiliation make up about 24% of Canada's total population.[114]

Canada, the U.S., and Mexico host communities of Jews (6 million or about 1.8%),[115] Buddhists (3.8 million or 1.1%)[116] and Muslims (3.4 million or 1.0%).[117] The largest number of Jews can be found in the U.S. (5.4 million),[118] Canada (375,000)[119] and Mexico (67,476).[120] The U.S. hosts the largest Muslim population in North America with 2.7 million or 0.9%,[121][122] while Canada hosts about one million Muslims or 3.2% of the population.[123] In Mexico there were 3,700 Muslims in 2010.[124] In 2012, U-T San Diego estimated U.S. practitioners of Buddhism at 1.2 million people, of whom 40% are living in Southern California.[125]

The predominant religion in Mexico and Central America is Christianity (96%).[126] Beginning with the Spanish colonization of Mexico in the 16th century, Roman Catholicism was the only religion permitted by Spanish crown and Catholic church. A vast campaign of religious conversion, the so-called "spiritual conquest", was launched to bring the indigenous peoples into the Christian fold. The Inquisition was established to assure orthodox belief and practice. The Catholic Church remained an important institution, so that even after political independence, Roman Catholicism remained the dominant religion. Since the 1960s, there has been an increase in other Christian groups, particularly Protestantism, as well as other religious organizations, and individuals identifying themselves as having no religion. Christianity is also the predominant religion in the Caribbean (85%).[126] Other religious groups in the region are Hinduism, Islam, Rastafari (in Jamaica), and Afro-American religions such as Santería and Vodou.


<templatestyles src="Multiple image/styles.css" wrapper=".tmulti"></templatestyles>

File:Life expectancy map -North America -2021 -with names.png

Life expectancy in North America in 2021

North America is the fourth most populous continent after Asia, Africa, and Europe.[127] Its most populous country is the U.S. with 329.7 million persons. The second-largest country is Mexico with a population of 112.3 million.[128] Canada is the third-most-populous country with 37.0 million.[129] The majority of Caribbean island-nations have national populations under a million, though Cuba, Dominican Republic, Haiti, Puerto Rico (a territory of the U.S.), Jamaica, and Trinidad and Tobago each have populations higher than a million.[130][131][132][133][134] Greenland has a small population of 55,984 for its massive size (2.166 million km2 or 836,300 mi2), and therefore, it has the world's lowest population density at 0.026 pop./km2 (0.067 pop./mi2).[135]

While the U.S., Canada, and Mexico maintain the largest populations, large city populations are not restricted to those nations. There are also large cities in the Caribbean. The largest cities in North America, by far, are Mexico City and New York City. These cities are the only cities on the continent to exceed eight million, and two of three in the Americas. Next in size are Los Angeles, Toronto,[136] Chicago, Havana, Santo Domingo, and Montreal. Cities in the Sun Belt regions of the U.S., such as those in Southern California and Houston, Phoenix, Miami, Atlanta, and Las Vegas, are experiencing rapid growth. These causes included warm temperatures, retirement of Baby Boomers, large industry, and the influx of immigrants. Cities near the U.S. border, particularly in Mexico, are also experiencing large amounts of growth. Most notable is Tijuana, a city bordering San Diego that receives immigrants from all over Latin America and parts of Europe and Asia. Yet as cities grow in these warmer regions of North America, they are increasingly forced to deal with the major issue of water shortages.[137]

Eight of the top ten metropolitan areas are located in the U.S. These metropolitan areas all have a population of above 5.5 million and include the New York City metropolitan area, Los Angeles metropolitan area, Chicago metropolitan area, and the Dallas–Fort Worth metroplex.[138] Whilst the majority of the largest metropolitan areas are within the U.S., Mexico is host to the largest metropolitan area by population in North America: Greater Mexico City.[139] Canada also breaks into the top ten largest metropolitan areas with the Toronto metropolitan area having six million people.[140] The proximity of cities to each other on the Canada–United States border and the Mexico–U.S. border has led to the rise of international metropolitan areas. These urban agglomerations are observed at their largest and most productive in Detroit–Windsor and San Diego–Tijuana and experience large commercial, economic, and cultural activity. The metropolitan areas are responsible for millions of dollars of trade dependent on international freight. In Detroit-Windsor the Border Transportation Partnership study in 2004 concluded US$13 billion was dependent on the Detroit–Windsor international border crossing while in San Diego-Tijuana freight at the Otay Mesa Port of Entry was valued at US$20 billion.[141][142]

North America has also been witness to the growth of megapolitan areas. The United States includes eleven megaregions.

The top ten largest North American metropolitan areas by population as of 2013, based on national census numbers from the U.S. and census estimates from Canada and Mexico
Metro Area Population Area Country
Mexico City 21,163,226 7,346 km2 (2,836 sq mi) Mexico
New York City 19,949,502 17,405 km2 (6,720 sq mi) United States
Los Angeles 13,131,431 12,562 km2 (4,850 sq mi) United States
Chicago 9,537,289 24,814 km2 (9,581 sq mi) United States
Dallas–Fort Worth 6,810,913 24,059 km2 (9,289 sq mi) United States
Houston 6,313,158 26,061 km2 (10,062 sq mi) United States
Toronto 6,054,191 5,906 km2 (2,280 sq mi) Canada
Philadelphia 6,034,678 13,256 km2 (5,118 sq mi) United States
Washington, D.C. 5,949,859 14,412 km2 (5,565 sq mi) United States
Miami 5,828,191 15,896 km2 (6,137 sq mi) United States

2011 Census figures


File:President Donald J. Trump at the G20 Summit (44300765490).jpg

Mexican President Enrique Peña Nieto, U.S. President Donald Trump, and Canadian Prime Minister Justin Trudeau sign the U.S.–Mexico–Canada Agreement during the 2018 G20 Buenos Aires summit

File:Worlds regions by total wealth(in trillions USD), 2018.jpg

The regions of the world respective wealth (in trillions USD) as of 2018

Rank Country or territory GDP[143] (PPP, peak year)
millions of USD
Peak year
1 File:Flag of the United States.svg United States 26,949,643 2023
2 Template:Country data Mexico 3,277,601 2023
3 File:Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg Canada 2,378,973 2023
4 Template:Country data Dominican Republic 273,703 2023
5 Template:Country data Cuba 254,865 2015
6 Template:Country data Guatemala 201,365 2023
7 Template:Country data Panama 190,306 2023
8 File:Flag of Costa Rica.svg Costa Rica 141,527 2023
9 Template:Country data Puerto Rico 132,052 2023
10 Template:Country data Honduras 75,030 2023
Rank Country or territory GDP (nominal, peak year)
millions of USD
Peak year
1 File:Flag of the United States.svg United States 26,949,643 2023
2 File:Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg Canada[144] 2,139,840 2022
3 Template:Country data Mexico 1,811,468 2023
4 Template:Country data Cuba[145] 545,218 2021
5 Template:Country data Dominican Republic 120,629 2023
6 Template:Country data Puerto Rico 117,515 2023
7 Template:Country data Guatemala 102,765 2023
8 File:Flag of Costa Rica.svg Costa Rica 85,590 2023
9 Template:Country data Panama 82,348 2023
10 Template:Country data El Salvador 35,339 2023

North America's GDP per capita was evaluated in October 2016 by the International Monetary Fund (IMF) to be $41,830, making it the richest continent in the world,[146] followed by Oceania.[147]

Canada, Mexico, and the U.S. have significant and multifaceted economic systems. The U.S. has the largest economy in the world.[147] In 2016, the U.S. had an estimated per capita gross domestic product (PPP) of $57,466 according to the World Bank, and is the most technologically developed economy of the three.[148] The U.S.'s services sector comprises 77% of the country's GDP (estimated in 2010), industry comprises 22% and agriculture comprises 1.2%.[147] The U.S. economy is also the fastest-growing economy in North America and the Americas as a whole,[146][149] with the highest GDP per capita in the Americas as well.[146]

Canada shows significant growth in the sectors of services, mining and manufacturing.[150] Canada's per capita GDP (PPP) was estimated at $44,656 and it had the 11th-largest GDP (nominal) in 2014.[150] Canada's services sector comprises 78% of the country's GDP (estimated in 2010), industry comprises 20% and agriculture comprises 2%.[150] Mexico has a per capita GDP (PPP) of $16,111 and as of 2014 is the 15th-largest GDP (nominal) in the world.[151] Being a newly industrialized country,[101] Mexico maintains both modern and outdated industrial and agricultural facilities and operations.[152] Its main sources of income are oil, industrial exports, manufactured goods, electronics, heavy industry, automobiles, construction, food, banking and financial services.[153]

The North American economy is well defined and structured in three main economic areas.[154] These areas are those under the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), the Caribbean Community and Common Market (CARICOM), and the Central American Common Market (CACM).[154] Of these trade blocs, the U.S. takes part in two. In addition to the larger trade blocs there is the Canada-Costa Rica Free Trade Agreement among numerous other free-trade relations, often between the larger, more developed countries and Central American and Caribbean countries.

NAFTA formed one of the four largest trade blocs in the world.[155] Its implementation in 1994 was designed for economic homogenization with hopes of eliminating barriers of trade and foreign investment between Canada, the U.S. and Mexico.[156] While Canada and the U.S. already conducted the largest bilateral trade relationship—and to present day still do—in the world and Canada–U.S. trade relations already allowed trade without national taxes and tariffs,[157] NAFTA allowed Mexico to experience a similar duty-free trade. The free-trade agreement allowed for the elimination of tariffs that had previously been in place on U.S.–Mexico trade. Trade volume has steadily increased annually and in 2010, surface trade between the three NAFTA nations reached an all-time historical increase of 24.3% or US$791 billion.[158] The NAFTA trade bloc GDP (PPP) is the world's largest with US$17.617 trillion.[159] This is in part attributed to the fact that the economy of the U.S. is the world's largest national economy; the country had a nominal GDP of approximately $14.7 trillion in 2010.[160] The countries of NAFTA are also some of each other's largest trade partners. The U.S. is the largest trade partner of Canada and Mexico,[161] while Canada and Mexico are each other's third-largest trade partners.[162][163] In 2018, the NAFTA was replaced by the U.S.–Mexico–Canada Agreement.

The Caribbean trade bloc (CARICOM) came into agreement in 1973 when it was signed by 15 Caribbean nations. As of 2000, CARICOM trade volume was US$96 billion. CARICOM also allowed for the creation of a common passport for associated nations. In the past decade the trade bloc focused largely on free-trade agreements and under the CARICOM Office of Trade Negotiations free-trade agreements have been signed into effect.

Integration of Central American economies occurred under the signing of the Central American Common Market agreement in 1961; this was the first attempt to engage the nations of this area into stronger financial cooperation. The 2006 implementation of the Central American Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA) left the future of the CACM unclear.[164] The Central American Free Trade Agreement was signed by five Central American countries, the Dominican Republic, and the U.S. The focal point of CAFTA is to create a free trade area similar to that of NAFTA. In addition to the U.S., Canada also has relations in Central American trade blocs.

These nations also take part in inter-continental trade blocs. Mexico takes a part in the G3 Free Trade Agreement with Colombia and Venezuela and has a trade agreement with the EU. The U.S. has proposed and maintained trade agreements under the Transatlantic Free Trade Area between itself and the European Union; the U.S.–Middle East Free Trade Area between numerous Middle Eastern nations and itself; and the Trans-Pacific Strategic Economic Partnership between Southeast Asian nations, Australia, and New Zealand.



A 2006 map of the North American Class I railroad network

The Pan-American Highway route in the Americas is the portion of a network of roads nearly 48,000 km (30,000 mi) in length which travels through the mainland nations. No definitive length of the Pan-American Highway exists because the U.S. and Canadian governments have never officially defined any specific routes as being part of the Pan-American Highway, and Mexico officially has many branches connecting to the U.S. border. However, the total length of the portion from Mexico to the northern extremity of the highway is roughly 26,000 km (16,000 mi).

The first transcontinental railroad in the U.S. was built in the 1860s, linking the railroad network of the eastern U.S. with California on the Pacific coast. Finished on 10 May 1869 at the famous golden spike event at Promontory Summit, Utah, it created a nationwide mechanized transportation network that revolutionized the population and economy of the American West, catalyzing the transition from the wagon trains of previous decades to a modern transportation system.[165] Although an accomplishment, it achieved the status of first transcontinental railroad by connecting myriad eastern U.S. railroads to the Pacific and was not the largest single railroad system in the world. The Canadian Grand Trunk Railway had, by 1867, already accumulated more than 2,055 km (1,277 mi) of track by connecting Ontario with the Canadian Atlantic provinces west as far as Port Huron, Michigan, through Sarnia, Ontario.


A shared telephone system known as the North American Numbering Plan (NANP) is an integrated telephone numbering plan of 24 countries and territories: the U.S. and its territories, Canada, Bermuda, and 17 Caribbean nations. In recent months the internet service by Starlink has expanded to cover a number of North American markets.


File:Yankee Stadium upper deck 2010.jpg

Baseball is known as the national pastime of the United States, and is also played in Canada and many Latin American countries.

The cultures of North America are diverse. The U.S. and English Canada have many cultural similarities, while French Canada has a distinct culture from Anglophone Canada, which is protected by law. Since the U.S. was formed from portions previously part of the Spanish Empire and then independent Mexico, and there has been considerable and continuing immigration of Spanish speakers from south of the U.S.–Mexico border. In the southwest of the U.S. there are many Hispanic cultural traditions and considerable bilingualism. Mexico and Central America are part of Latin America and are culturally distinct from anglophone and francophone North America. However, they share with the United States the establishment of post-independence governments that are federated representative republics with written constitutions dating from their founding as nations. Canada is a federated parliamentary democracy under a constitutional monarchy.

Canada's constitution dates to 1867, with confederation, in the British North America Act, but not until 1982 did Canada have the power to amend its own constitution. Canada's Francophone heritage has been enshrined in law since the British parliament passed the Quebec Act of 1774. In contrast to largely Protestant Anglo settlers in North America, French-speaking Canadians were Catholic and with the Quebec Act were guaranteed freedom to practice their religion, restored the right of the Catholic Church to impose tithes for its support, and established French civil law in most circumstances.

The distinctiveness of French language and culture has been codified in Canadian law, so that both English and French are designated official languages. The U.S. has no official language, but its national language is English.

The Canadian government took action to protect Canadian culture by limiting non-Canadian content in broadcasting, creating the Canadian Radio and Telecommunications Commission to monitor Canadian content. In Quebec, the provincial government established the Quebec Office of the French Language, often called the "language police" by Anglophones, which mandates the use of French terminology and signage in French.[166] Since 1968 the unicameral legislature has been called the Quebec National Assembly. Saint-Jean-Baptiste Day, 24 June, is the national holiday of Quebec and celebrated by francophone Canadians throughout Canada. In Quebec, the school system was divided into Catholic and Protestant, so-called confessional schools. Anglophone education in Quebec has been increasingly undermined.[167]

Latino culture is strong in the southwest of the U.S., as well as Florida, which draws Latin Americans from many countries in the hemisphere. Northern Mexico, particularly in the cities of Monterrey, Tijuana, Ciudad Juárez, and Mexicali, is strongly influenced by the culture and way of life of the U.S. Monterrey, a modern city with a significant industrial group, has been regarded as the most Americanized city in Mexico.[168] Northern Mexico, the Western U.S. and Alberta, Canada share a cowboy culture.

The Anglophone Caribbean states have witnessed and participated in the decline of the British Empire and its influence on the region, and its replacement by the economic influence of Northern America in the Anglophone Caribbean. This is partly due to the relatively small populations of the English-speaking Caribbean countries, and also because many of them now have more people living abroad than those remaining at home.[citation needed]

Greenland has experienced many immigration waves from Northern Canada, e.g. the Thule people. Therefore, Greenland shares some cultural ties with the indigenous peoples of Canada. Greenland is also considered Nordic and has strong Danish ties due to centuries of colonization by Denmark.[169]

Popular culture – sports[]

The U.S. and Canada have major sports teams that compete against each other, including baseball, basketball, hockey, and soccer/football. Canada, Mexico and the U.S. will host the 2026 FIFA World Cup.

The following table shows the most prominent sports leagues in North America, in order of average revenue.[170][171] Canada has a separate Canadian Football League from the U.S. teams.

The Native American game of lacrosse is considered a national sport in Canada. Curling is an important winter sport in Canada, and the Winter Olympics includes it in the roster. The English sport of cricket is popular in parts of anglophone Canada and very popular in parts of the former British empire, but in Canada is considered a minor sport. Boxing is also a major sport in some countries, such as Mexico, Panama and Puerto Rico, and it is considered one of the main individual sports in the U.S.

League Sport Primary
Founded Teams Revenue
US$ (bn)
National Football League (NFL) American football United States 1920 32 $9.0 67,604
Major League Baseball (MLB) Baseball United States
1869 30 $8.0 30,458
National Basketball Association (NBA) Basketball United States
1946 30 $5.0 17,347
National Hockey League (NHL) Ice hockey United States
1917 32 $3.3 17,720
Liga MX Football (soccer) Mexico 1943 18 $0.6 25,557
Major League Soccer (MLS) Football (soccer) United States
1994 28 $0.5 21,574
Canadian Football League (CFL) Canadian football Canada 1958 9 $0.3 23,890

<templatestyles src="Reflist/styles.css" />

See also[]

Lua error: bad argument #2 to '' (unrecognized namespace name 'Portal').

  • Flags of North America
  • List of cities in North America
  • Table manners in North America
  • North American Union



<templatestyles src="Reflist/styles.css" />

  1. This North American density figure is based on a total land area of 23,090,542 km2 only, considerably less than the total combined land and water area of 24.709 million km2.
  2. Some countries view the Americas as a single continent, comprising North and South America.
  3. The Aleutian Islands of Alaska extend into the Eastern Hemisphere.
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 Depending on the definition, Panama could be considered a transcontinental country while the ABC islands (Aruba, Bonaire, and Curaçao) and Trinidad and Tobago could be considered either parts of North America or South America.
  5. Since the Lucayan Archipelago is located in the Atlantic Ocean rather than Caribbean Sea, The Bahamas are part of the West Indies but are not technically part of the Caribbean, although the United Nations groups them with the Caribbean.
  6. Because of ongoing activity of the Soufriere Hills volcano beginning in July 1995, much of Plymouth was destroyed and government offices were relocated to Brades. Plymouth remains the de jure capital.
  7. Panama is generally considered a North American country, though some authorities divide it at the Panama Canal. Figures listed here are for the entire country.
  8. Since the Lucayan Archipelago is located in the Atlantic Ocean rather than Caribbean Sea, the Turks and Caicos Islands are part of the West Indies but are not technically part of the Caribbean, although the United Nations groups them with the Caribbean.
  9. Includes the states of Hawaii and Alaska which are both separated from the US mainland, with Hawaii distant from the North American landmass in the Pacific Ocean and therefore more commonly associated with the other territories of Oceania while Alaska is located between Asia (Russia) and Canada.
  10. The receding of oceans during successive ice ages may have enabled migrants to cross the land bridge as far back as 40,000 years.[83]
  11. While not conclusive, some South American rock painting has been dated to 25,000 years ago.[87]
  12. Descriptions of sites Erikson explored seem to correspond to Baffin Island, the Labrador coast near Cape Porcupine, as well as Belle Isle, and a site which led him to name the country Vinland ('Wineland').[95]


<templatestyles src="Reflist/styles.css" />

  1. GDP PPP, current prices. International Monetary Fund (2021).
  2. GDP Nominal, current prices. International Monetary Fund (2021).
  3. Nominal GDP per capita. International Monetary Fund (2021).
  4. The Global Religious Landscape.
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 Religious Composition by Country, 2010–2050.
  7. pp. 30–31, Geography: Realms, Regions, and Concepts, H. J. de Blij and Peter O. Muller, Wiley, 12th ed., 2005 (<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>ISBN 0-471-71786-X.)
  8. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>Lewis, Martin W.; Wigen, Karen E. (1997). "Chapter One, The Architecture of Continents". The Myth of Continents. University of California Press. p. 168. ISBN 0-520-20742-4.
  9. Burchfield, R. W., ed. 2004. "America." Fowler's Modern English Usage (<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>ISBN 0-19-861021-1) New York: Oxford University Press, p. 48
  10. McArthur, Tom. 1992."North American." The Oxford Companion to the English Language (<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>ISBN 0-19-214183-X) New York: Oxford University Press, p. 707.
  11. Common Errors in English Usage. Paul Brians, Washing State University (16 May 2016).
  12. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>Pigati, Jeffrey S.; Springer, Kathleen B.; Honke, Jeffrey S.; Wahl, David; Champagne, Marie R.; Zimmerman, Susan R. H.; Gray, Harrison J.; Santucci, Vincent L.; Odess, Daniel; Bustos, David; Bennett, Matthew R. (6 October 2023). "Independent age estimates resolve the controversy of ancient human footprints at White Sands". Science. 382 (6666): 73–75. Bibcode:2023Sci...382...73P. doi:10.1126/science.adh5007. ISSN 0036-8075. PMID 37797035. S2CID 263672291. Archived from the original on 5 October 2023. Retrieved 6 December 2023.
  13. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>Goodyear, Albert C.; Sain, Douglas A. (22 May 2018). "The Pre-Clovis Occupation of the Topper Site, Allendale County, South Carolina". Early Human Life on the Southeastern Coastal Plain. University Press of Florida. pp. 8–31. doi:10.5744/florida/9781683400349.003.0002. ISBN 978-1-68340-034-9. Archived from the original on 7 December 2023. Retrieved 5 December 2023.
  14. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>Ardelean, Ciprian F.; Becerra-Valdivia, Lorena; Pedersen, Mikkel Winther; Schwenninger, Jean-Luc; Oviatt, Charles G.; Macías-Quintero, Juan I.; Arroyo-Cabrales, Joaquin; Sikora, Martin; Ocampo-Díaz, Yam Zul E.; Rubio-Cisneros, Igor I.; Watling, Jennifer G.; de Medeiros, Vanda B.; De Oliveira, Paulo E.; Barba-Pingarón, Luis; Ortiz-Butrón, Agustín (22 July 2020). "Evidence of human occupation in Mexico around the Last Glacial Maximum". Nature. 584 (7819): 87–92. Bibcode:2020Natur.584...87A. doi:10.1038/s41586-020-2509-0. ISSN 1476-4687. PMID 32699412. S2CID 256819465. Archived from the original on 21 April 2021. Retrieved 6 December 2023.
  15. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>"Amerigo Vespucci". Encyclopædia Britannica. Archived from the original on 10 July 2012. Retrieved 7 July 2011.
  16. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>Herbermann, Charles George, ed. (1907). The Cosmographiæ Introductio of Martin Waldseemüller in Facsimile. Translated by Edward Burke and Mario E. Cosenza, introduction by Joseph Fischer and Franz von Wieser. New York: The United States Catholic Historical Society. p. 9. Latin: "Quarta pars per Americum Vesputium (ut in sequentibus audietur) inventa est, quam non video, cur quis jure vetet, ab Americo inventore sagacis ingenii viro Amerigen quasi Americi terram sive Americam dicendam, cum et Europa et Asia a mulieribus sua sortita sint nomina."
  17. Arbuckle, Alex (24 December 2016). This 509-year-old map contains the first known use of the word 'America' — but not where you may think (en).
  18. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>Apianus, Petrus (1553). English: 1553 world map – Charta Cosmographica, Cum Ventorum Propria Natura et Operatione. Archived from the original on 9 July 2022. Retrieved 10 August 2022.{{citation}}: CS1 maint: overridden setting (link)
  19. Charta Cosmographica, Cum Ventorum Propria Natura et Operatione (en).
  20. Cohen, Jonathan. The Naming of America: Fragments We've Shored Against Ourselves.
  21. Mercator 1587 | Envisioning the World | The First Printed Maps.
  22. Division, United Nations Statistics. UNSD — Methodology (en). “The continent of North America (numerical code 003) comprises Northern America (numerical code 021), Caribbean (numerical code 029), and Central America (numerical code 013).”
  23. Norteamérica (es). “In Ibero-America, North America is considered a subcontinent containing Canada, the United States, Mexico, Greenland, Bermuda and Saint-Pierre and Miquelon.”
  24. Six or Seven Continents on Earth (en). “In Europe and other parts of the world, many students are taught of six continents, where North and South America are combined to form a single continent of America. Thus, these six continents are Africa, America, Antarctica, Asia, Australia, and Europe.”
  25. Continents (en). “six-continent model (used mostly in France, Italy, Portugal, Spain, Romania, Greece, and Latin America) groups together North America+South America into the single continent America.”
  26. AMÉRIQUE (fr).
  27. America (it).
  28. Acta Solemne de la Declaración de Independencia de la América Septentrional (es). Archivos de la Independencia. Archivo General de la Nación.
  29. Office Québécois de la langue francaise. Status of the French language. Government of Quebec.
  30. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>"Central America". Encarta Encyclopedia. Archived from the original on 3 November 2009. Retrieved 30 May 2011.
  31. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>"Caribbean". The Free Dictionary. Archived from the original on 6 November 2011. Retrieved 30 May 2011.
  32. The World Factbook – North America. Central Intelligence Agency.
  33. Countries in North America – Country Reports. Country Reports. Archived from the original on April 27, 2015.
  34. North America: World of Earth Science. eNotes Inc..
  35. North American Region. The Trilateral Commission. Archived from the original on October 21, 2012. Retrieved on May 30, 2011.
  36. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>Parsons, Alan; Schaffer, Jonathan (May 2004). Geopolitics of oil and natural gas. Economic Perspectives. U.S. Department of State.[full citation needed]
  37. Schedule C - Country Codes and Descriptions. US Census Bureau.
  38. Definition of major areas and regions. United Nations.
  39. Composition of macro geographical (continental) regions, geographical sub-regions, and selected economic and other groupings. UN Statistics Division. (French Archived 24 December 2010 at the Wayback Machine).
  40. Chapter 5, Middle America. University of Minnesota (17 June 2016).
  41. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>"Middle America (region, Mesoamerica)". Encyclopædia Britannica. Archived from the original on 19 September 2011. Retrieved 20 June 2011.
  42. SPP Background. Security and Prosperity Partnership of North America.
  43. Ecoregions of North America. United States Environmental Protection Agency.
  44. Unless otherwise noted, land area figures are taken from Demographic Yearbook—Table 3: Population by sex, rate of population increase, surface area and density. United Nations Statistics Division (2008).
  45. World Population Prospects 2022. United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division.
  46. World Population Prospects 2022: Demographic indicators by region, subregion and country, annually for 1950-2100 (XSLX). United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division.
  47. 47.0 47.1 47.2 Population estimates are taken from the Central Bureau of Statistics Netherlands Antilles. Statistical information: Population. Government of the Netherlands Antilles.
  48. 48.0 48.1 These population estimates are for 2010, and are taken from The World Factbook: 2010 edition. Government of the United States, Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved on October 14, 2010.
  49. 49.0 49.1 Land area figures taken from The World Factbook: 2010 edition. Government of the United States, Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved on October 14, 2010.
  50. The Olympic symbols. International Olympic Committee (2002). The five rings of the Olympic flag represent the five inhabited, participating continents (Africa, America, Asia, Europe, and Oceania Archived 23 February 2002 at the Wayback Machine).
  51. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>Equipo (1997). "Continente". Océano Uno, Diccionario Enciclopédico y Atlas Mundial. Océano. pp. 392, 1730. ISBN 978-84-494-0188-6.Template:Author missing
  52. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>Los Cinco Continentes (The Five Continents). Planeta-De Agostini Editions. 1997. ISBN 978-84-395-6054-8.[page needed]
  53. Encarta, "Norteamérica" (es).
  54. 54.0 54.1 <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>"North America". Encyclopædia Britannica. Archived from the original on 20 May 2012. Retrieved 3 February 2014.
  55. Map And Details Of All 7 Continents. “In some parts of the world, students are taught that there are only six continents, as they combine North America and South America into one continent called the Americas.”
  56. Rosenberg, Matt (11 April 2020). Ranking the 7 Continents by Size and Population (en).
  57. North America Land Forms and Statistics. World
  58. Americas. Standard Country and Area Codes Classifications (M49). United Nations Statistics Division.
  59. North America. Atlas of Canada.
  60. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>"North America Atlas". National Geographic. Archived from the original on 25 May 2020. Retrieved 12 May 2011.
  61. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>"Central America". Encyclopædia Britannica. Archived from the original on 8 July 2011. Retrieved 28 June 2011.
  62. Elevations and Distances.
  63. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>Garcia-Castellanos, D.; Lombardo, U. (2007). "Poles of Inaccessibility: A Calculation Algorithm for the Remotest Places on Earth" (PDF). Scottish Geographical Journal. 123 (3): 227–233. Bibcode:2007ScGJ..123..227G. doi:10.1080/14702540801897809. S2CID 55876083. Archived from the original (PDF) on 29 June 2014.
  64. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>Dalziel, I.W.D. (1992). "On the organization of American Plates in the Neoproterozoic and the breakout of Laurentia". GSA Today. 2 (11): 237–241.
  65. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>Merali, Zeeya; Skinner, Brian J. (9 January 2009). Visualizing Earth Science. Wiley. ISBN 978-0-470-41847-5.[page needed]
  66. Land Bridge Linking Americas Rose Earlier Than Thought. (10 April 2015).
  67. 67.0 67.1 67.2 67.3 <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>Dodson, Peter (1997). "American Dinosaurs". In Currie, Phillip J.; Padian, Kevin (eds.). Encyclopedia of Dinosaurs. Academic Press. pp. 10–13.
  68. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>Weishampel, David B. (2004). Weishampel, David B.; Dodson, Peter; Halszka, Osmólska (eds.). Dinosaur distribution (Late Jurassic, North America). The Dinosauria. Berkeley: University of California Press. pp. 543–545. ISBN 978-0-520-24209-8.
  69. 69.0 69.1 69.2 <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>Wallace, Stewart W. (1948). Geology Of Canada. The Encyclopedia of Canada. Vol. III. Toronto: University Associates of Canada. pp. 23–26. Archived from the original on 4 July 2010. Retrieved 1 June 2011 – via Marianopolis College.
  70. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>"Digging for Diamonds 24/7 Under Frozen Snap Lake". Wired. Archived from the original on 3 September 2011. Retrieved 1 June 2011.
  71. "3-D Magnetic Imaging using Conjugate Gradients: Temagami anomaly". 
  72. University of Washington. Cascades weather. University of Washington.
  73. SF to do. Temperature of San Francisco. tourism.
  74. Rainfall of NYC. Current Results.
  75. Thompson, Andrea (18 May 2007). Top 10 wettest cities. livescience.
  76. Haberlin, Rita D. (2015). Climates Regions of North America. Peralta Colleges, Physical Geography.
  77. "Facts and Information about the Continent of North America", Natural History on the Net, 7 July 2016. (in en-US) 
  78. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>Curtin, Jeremiah (2014). Creation Myths of Primitive America. Jazzybee Verlag. p. 2. ISBN 978-3-8496-4454-3. Archived from the original on 9 February 2016. Retrieved 22 November 2015.
  79. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>Krensky, Stephen (1987). Who Really Discovered America?. Illustrated by Steve Sullivan. Scholastic Inc. p. 13. ISBN 978-0-590-40854-7.
  80. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>White, Phillip M. (2006). American Indian chronology: chronologies of the American mosaic. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 1. ISBN 978-0-313-33820-5. Archived from the original on 11 January 2014. Retrieved 29 November 2011.
  81. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>Haviland, William; Prins, Harald; Walrath, Dana; McBride, Bunny (2013). Anthropology: The Human Challenge. Cengage Learning. pp. 219, 220. ISBN 978-1-285-67758-3. Archived from the original on 7 February 2016. Retrieved 22 November 2015.
  82. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>Sonneborn, Liz (January 2007). Chronology of American Indian History. Infobase Publishing. p. 3. ISBN 978-0-8160-6770-1. Archived from the original on 3 January 2014. Retrieved 29 November 2011.
  83. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>Krensky, Stephen (1987). Who Really Discovered America?. Illustrated by Steve Sullivan. Scholastic Inc. pp. 11, 13. ISBN 978-0-590-40854-7.
  84. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>Wade, Lizzie (10 August 2017). "Most archaeologists think the first Americans arrived by boat. Now, they're beginning to prove it". Science. doi:10.1126/science.aan7213. Archived from the original on 31 January 2020. Retrieved 26 December 2018.
  85. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>Pauketat, Timothy R. (23 February 2012). The Oxford Handbook of North American Archaeology. OUP US. p. 96. ISBN 978-0-19-538011-8.
  86. Shogren, Elizabeth (16 August 2013). N. America's Oldest Known Petroglyphs Discovered In Nevada.
  87. 87.0 87.1 Nash, George (2011). America's Oldest Art – The Rock Art of Serra da Capivara.
  88. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>Skoglund, P.; Mallick, S.; Bortolini, M.C.; Chennagiri, N.; Hünemeier, T.; Petzl-Erler, M.L.; Salzano, F.M.; Patterson, N.; Reich, D. (21 July 2015). "Genetic evidence for two founding populations of the Americas". Nature. 525 (7567): 104–8. Bibcode:2015Natur.525..104S. doi:10.1038/nature14895. PMC 4982469. PMID 26196601.
  89. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>Bellwood, Peter; Ness, Immanuel (2014). The Global Prehistory of Human Migration. John Wiley & Sons. p. 194. ISBN 978-1-118-97059-1. Archived from the original on 7 February 2016. Retrieved 22 November 2015.
  90. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>Krensky, Stephen (1987). Who Really Discovered America?. Illustrated by Steve Sullivan. Scholastic Inc. pp. 17–27. ISBN 978-0-590-40854-7.
  91. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>Kaplan, Robert (16 January 2007). "What is the origin of zero? How did we indicate nothingness before zero?". Scientific American. Archived from the original on 19 March 2011. Retrieved 19 February 2008.
  92. Vinland.
  93. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>Cordell, Linda S.; Lightfoot, Kent; McManamon, Francis; Milner, George (2009). "L'Anse aux Meadows National Historic Site". Archaeology in America: An Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. p. 82. ISBN 978-0-313-02189-3. Archived from the original on 30 December 2016. Retrieved 19 December 2020.
  94. H. Ingstad and A. Stine Ingstad, The Viking Discovery of America (2000), p. 141.
  95. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>Wernick, Robert (1979). The Vikings. Alexandria, VA: Time-Life Books. pp. 149–151. ISBN 0-8094-2709-5.
  96. Why Do We Celebrate Columbus Day and Not Leif Erikson Day? (11 October 2015).
  97. History – Leif Erikson.
  98. Bernard Grunberg, "La folle aventure d'Hernan Cortés", in L'Histoire n°322, July–August 2007 Template:Incomplete short citation
  99. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>Massimo Livi Bacci, Malden (2001). A Concise History of World Population: An Introduction to Population Processes (3rd ed.). Massachusetts: Blackwell Publishing. pp. 42–46. ISBN 978-0-631-22335-1.
  100. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>Bergreen, Lawrence (2011). Columbus: The Four Voyages, 1493–1504. Penguin Group US. p. 127. ISBN 978-1-101-54432-7. Archived from the original on 17 December 2020. Retrieved 13 September 2020.
  101. 101.0 101.1 <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>Waugh, David (2000). "Manufacturing industries (chapter 19), World development (chapter 22)". Geography, An Integrated Approach (3rd ed.). Nelson Thornes Ltd. pp. 563, 576–579, 633, and 640. ISBN 978-0-17-444706-1.
  102. 2010 Human development Report 148–151. United Nations Development Programme (January 2010).
  103. "Independence on ice", 21 January 2015. 
  104. 104.0 104.1 <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>N.J. Smelser; P.B. Baltes, eds. (2001). "Population Composition by Race and Ethnicity: North America". International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences (PDF) (1 ed.). Elsevier Science. pp. 11745–11749. ISBN 0-08-043076-7. Archived (PDF) from the original on 24 June 2021. Retrieved 24 June 2021. {{cite book}}: |work= ignored (help)
  105. Census Shows Native Languages Count (en-US).
  106. Aboriginal Population Profile, 2016. Statistics Canada (21 June 2018).
  107. Cocking, Lauren (23 December 2016). A Guide To Mexico's Indigenous Languages.
  108. North American Indian languages (en).
  109. The Global Religious Landscape A Report on the Size and Distribution of the World's Major Religious Groups as of 2010 Archived 24 September 2015 at the Wayback Machine Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life, p. 18
  110. Global Christianity A Report on the Size and Distribution of the World's Christian Population Archived 5 August 2013 at the Wayback Machine Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life, p. 15
  111. America's Changing Religious Landscape. Pew Research Center: Religion & Public Life (12 May 2015).
  112. The Largest Catholic Communities.
  113. Religiously Unaffiliated. Pew Research Center's Religion & Public Life Project (18 December 2012).
  114. Religions in Canada—Census 2011. Statistics Canada/Statistique Canada (8 May 2013).
  115. The Global Religious Landscape: Jews. pewforum (18 December 2012).
  116. The Global Religious Landscape: Buddhists. pewforum (18 December 2012).
  117. The Global Religious Landscape: Muslims. Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life (18 December 2012).
  118. World Jewish Population, 2012.
  119. DellaPergola, Sergio (2013). World Jewish Population, 2013 (PDF). Current Jewish Population Reports. North American Jewish Data Bank.
  120. Panorama de las religiones en México 2010 (es). INEGI.
  121. America's Changing Religious Landscape. The Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life (12 May 2015).
  122. Demographics (22 October 2008).
  123. National Household Survey (NHS) Profile, 2011 (8 May 2013).
  124. Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Geografía (2010). Censo de Población y Vivienda 2010 – Cuestionario básico. INEGI.
  125. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>Rowe, Peter (16 April 2012). "Dalai Lama facts and figures". U-T San Diego. Archived from the original on 8 June 2012. Retrieved 15 January 2015.
  126. 126.0 126.1 Christianity in its Global Context.
  127. North America Fast Facts. World
  128. INEGI 2010 Census Statistics.
  129. Population estimates, quarterly (27 June 2018).
  130. Anuario Estadístico de Cuba 2009 (es). Oficina Nacional de Estadísticas, República de Cuba. Note: An exchange rate of 1 CUC to US$1.08 was used to convert GDP. [1] Archived 2 December 2021 at the Wayback Machine
  131. Presidencia de la República; Generalidades (es).
  132. The World Factbook: Haiti. Central Intelligence Agency.
  133. 2010 U.S. Census Data.
  134. The World Factbook: Jamaica. Central Intelligence Agency.
  135. Grønlands Statistik.
  136. Toronto's population overtakes Chicago. Toronto Star (5 March 2013).
  137. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>Cetron, Marvin J.; O'Toole, Thomas (April 1982). Encounters with the future: a forecast of life into the 21st century. Mcgraw-Hill. p. 34. ISBN 978-0-07-010347-4.
  138. Population and Housing Occupancy Status: 2010 – United States – Metropolitan Statistical Area; and for Puerto Rico more information 2010 Census National Summary File of Redistricting Data. 2010 United States Census. United States Census Bureau, Population Division (14 April 2011).[dead link]
  139. The World Factbook: Mexico. Central Intelligence Agence.
  140. Statistics Canada (2006). Toronto, Ontario (Census metropolitan area). Census 2006.
  141. Detroit/Windsor Border Update: Part I – Detroit River International Crossing Study. Detroit Regional Chamber (2006).
  142. Chapter IV Planning for the Future: Urban & Regional Planning in the San Diego-Tijuana Region. International Community Foundation.
  143. World Economic Outlook Database April 2022.
  144. World Bank's GDP (Nominal) Data for Canada.
  145. World Bank's GDP (Nominal) data for Cuba.
  146. 146.0 146.1 146.2 International Monetary Fund (October 2016). List of North American countries by GDP per capita. World Economic Outlook. International Monetary Fund.
  147. 147.0 147.1 147.2 United States, Economy. U.S. Central Intelligence Agency.
  148. GDP per capita (current US$) – Data. World Bank.
  149. International Monetary Fund (October 2016). List of South American countries by GDP per capita. World Economic Outlook. International Monetary Fund.
  150. 150.0 150.1 150.2 Canada, Economy. U.S. Central Intelligence Agency.
  151. World Economic Outlook Database, October 2010. International Monetary Fund.
  152. Mexico, Economy. U.S. Central Intelligence Agency.
  153. Stratfor Global Market – Mexico. Stratfor (30 August 2007).
  154. 154.0 154.1 <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>De la Torre, Miguel; Benavides, Benigno; Saldaña, José; Fernández, Jesús (2008). "Las profesiones en México: condiciones económicas, culturales y sociales". Sociología y Profesión [Sociology and Profession] (in Spanish). Monterrey: Nuevo León Autonomous University (UANL). p. 116. ISBN 978-970-24-0051-6. La economía de América del Norte se encuentra bien definida y estructurada en tres principales áreas económicas: el Tratado de Libre Comercio de América del Norte (TLCAN), el CARICOM y el Mercado Común Centroamericano
  155. Regional Trade Blocs. University of California, Santa Cruz.
  156. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>"North American Free Trade Agreement". Encyclopædia Britannica. Archived from the original on 4 September 2011. Retrieved 10 June 2011.
  157. Fergusson, Ian. CRS Report for Congress: United States-Canada Trade and Economic Relationship – Prospects and Challenges. Congress Research Service.
  158. NAFTA Trade Volume Increases.
  159. 2010 Report Countries by GDP (PPP). International Monetary Fund (14 September 2006).
  160. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>"BEA News Release: Gross Domestic Product" (PDF) (Press release). Bureau of Economic Analysis. Archived (PDF) from the original on 9 July 2014. Retrieved 3 February 2014.
  161. United States Foreign Trade Highlights. United States of America Bureau of the Census.
  162. Canadian Manufacturing Association.
  163. Mexico Free Trade Agreements. Federation of American Scientists.
  164. Central American Community and Market. Pearson Education.
  165. Ceremony at "Wedding of the Rails", May 10, 1869, at Promontory Point, Utah (10 May 1869).
  166. "Yes, the Quebec language police does serve a purpose". Accessed 5 July 2021 Archived 14 August 2021 at the Wayback Machine
  167. Quebec's Bill 40 further undermines the province's English language school system". Accessed 5 July 2021 Archived 9 July 2021 at the Wayback Machine
  168. Emmot, Robert. "Special report: If Monterrey falls Mexico falls – Reuters", 1 June 2011. 
  169. BAG OM GRØNLAND (da-DK).
  170. "The 'Big Five' in North American Pro Sports" Archived 22 May 2015 at the Wayback Machine, FiveThirtyEight, Nate Silver, 4 April 2014.
  171. "MLS vs the major leagues: can soccer compete when it comes to big business?" Archived 19 November 2016 at the Wayback Machine,, 12 March 2014.

Further reading[]

<templatestyles src="Refbegin/styles.css" />

  • <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>Gould, E.; Mapp, P.; Pestana, C.G. (2022). The Cambridge History of America and the World: Volume 1, 1500—1820. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-1-108-31781-8.
  • <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>McIlwraith, T.F.; Muller, E.K.; Conzen, M.P.; DeVorsey, L.; Earle, C.; Grim, R.E.; Groves, P.A.; Guelke, J.K.; Harris, C.; Harris, R. (2001). North America: The Historical Geography of a Changing Continent. Rowman & Littlefield. ISBN 978-1-4616-3960-2. LCCN 2020740684.
  • <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>Berndl, K.; National Geographic Society (U.S.) (2005). National Geographic Visual History of the World. National Geographic Society. ISBN 978-0-7922-3695-5. LCCN 2005541553.
  • <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>Axtell, J. (1988). After Columbus: Essays in the Ethnohistory of Colonial North America. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-802206-0. LCCN 87034886.
  • <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>Kehoe, A.B. (2016). North America before the European Invasions. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 978-1-317-49544-4. LCCN 2016054024.
  • <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>Haines, M.R.; Steckel, R.H. (2000). A Population History of North America. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-49666-7. LCCN 99023284.
  • <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>Kruer, M. (2022). Time of Anarchy: Indigenous Power and the Crisis of Colonialism in Early America. Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-26956-9.
  • <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>Axtell, J. (1981). The European and the Indian: Essays in the Ethnohistory of Colonial North America. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-502904-8. LCCN lc80025084.

External links[]

Lua error: bad argument #2 to '' (unrecognized namespace name 'Portal').

Template:North America topics

Lua error in Module:Authority_control at line 181: attempt to index field 'wikibase' (a nil value).