Philippine Media Wiki

Several terms redirect here. For other uses, see America (disambiguation), US (disambiguation), USA (disambiguation), The United States of America (disambiguation), and United States (disambiguation).

<templatestyles src="Module:Infobox/styles.css"></templatestyles><templatestyles src="Template:Infobox country/styles.css"></templatestyles>

United States of America
Motto: "In God We Trust"[1]
Other traditional mottos:[2]
  • "E pluribus unum" (Latin)
    "Out of many, one"
  • "Annuit cœptis" (Latin)
    "Providence favors our undertakings"
  • "Novus ordo seclorum" (Latin)
    "New order of the ages"
Anthem: "The Star-Spangled Banner"[3]
CapitalWashington, D.C.
<templatestyles src="Module:Coordinates/styles.css"></templatestyles>38°53′N 77°1′W / 38.883°N 77.017°W / 38.883; -77.017
Fatal error: The format of the coordinate could not be determined. Parsing failed.

Largest cityNew York City
<templatestyles src="Module:Coordinates/styles.css"></templatestyles>40°43′N 74°0′W / 40.717°N 74.000°W / 40.717; -74.000
Fatal error: The format of the coordinate could not be determined. Parsing failed.

Official languagesNone at the federal level[lower-alpha 1]
National languageEnglish[lower-alpha 2]
Ethnic groups
<templatestyles src="Plainlist/styles.css"/>
By race:
  • 61.6% White
  • 12.4% Black
  • 6.0% Asian
  • 1.1% Native American
  • 0.2% Pacific Islander
  • 10.2% two or more races
  • 8.4% other
<templatestyles src="Plainlist/styles.css"/>
By origin:
<templatestyles src="Plainlist/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • <templatestyles src="Tree list/styles.css" />
    • 70% Christianity
      • 34% Protestantism
      • 23% Catholicism
      • 2% Mormonism
      • 11% other Christian
  • 21% unaffiliated
  • 2% Judaism
  • 6% other religion
  • 1% unanswered
Demonym(s)American[lower-alpha 3][8]
GovernmentFederal presidential republic
<templatestyles src="Module:Infobox/styles.css"></templatestyles>
• President
Joe Biden
Kamala Harris
• House Speaker
Mike Johnson
• Chief Justice
John Roberts
House of Representatives
from Great Britain
<templatestyles src="Module:Infobox/styles.css"></templatestyles>
• Declaration
 4, 1776 (1776-07-04)
• Confederation
 1, 1781 (1781-03-01)
• Recognized
 3, 1783 (1783-09-03)
• Constitution
 21, 1788 (1788-06-21)
• Last Amendment
 5, 1992 (1992-05-05)
• Total area
3,796,742 sq mi (9,833,520 km2)[9] (3rd[lower-alpha 4])
• Water (%)
7.0[10] (2010)
• Land area
3,531,905 sq mi (9,147,590 km2) (3rd)
• 2023 estimate
Neutral increase 334,914,895[11]
• 2020 census
331,449,281[lower-alpha 5][12] (3rd)
• Density
87/sq mi (33.6/km2) (185th)
GDP <templatestyles src="Nobold/styles.css"/>(PPP)2023 estimate
• Total
Increase $26.950 trillion[13] (2nd)
• Per capita
Increase $80,412[13] (9th)
GDP <templatestyles src="Nobold/styles.css"/>(nominal)2023 estimate
• Total
Increase $26.950 trillion[13] (1st)
• Per capita
Increase $80,412[13] (7th)
Gini <templatestyles src="Nobold/styles.css"/>(2020)Negative increase 39.4[lower-alpha 6][14]
HDI <templatestyles src="Nobold/styles.css"/>(2021)Increase 0.921[15]
very high (21st)
CurrencyU.S. dollar ($) (USD)
Time zoneUTC−4 to −12, +10, +11
• Summer (DST)
UTC−4 to −10[lower-alpha 7]
Date formatmm/dd/yyyy[lower-alpha 8]
Driving sideright[lower-alpha 9]
Calling code+1
ISO 3166 codeUS

The United States of America (USA or U.S.A.), commonly known as the United States (US or U.S.) or America, is a country primarily located in North America, between Canada and Mexico. It is a federation of 50 states, a federal capital district (Washington, D.C.), and 326 Indian reservations that overlap with state boundaries. Outside the union of states, it asserts sovereignty over five major unincorporated island territories and various uninhabited islands.[lower-alpha 10] The country has the world's third-largest land area,[lower-alpha 4] largest maritime exclusive economic zone, and the third-largest population, exceeding 334 million.[lower-alpha 11]

Paleo-Indians migrated across the Bering land bridge more than 12,000 years ago. British colonization led to the first settlement of the Thirteen Colonies in Virginia in 1607. Clashes with the British Crown over taxation and political representation sparked the American Revolution and the Revolutionary War of 1775–1783. The Second Continental Congress voted for independence and formally declared independence on July 4, 1776. The country began expanding across North America. As more states were admitted, sectional division over slavery led to the secession of the Confederate States of America, which fought the remaining states of the Union during the 1861–1865 American Civil War. With the Union's victory and preservation, slavery was abolished nationally. By 1900, the United States had established itself as a great power, becoming the world's largest economy. After Japan's attack on Pearl Harbor in December 1941, the U.S. entered World War II. The aftermath of the war left the U.S. and the Soviet Union as the world's two superpowers and led to the Cold War, during which both countries engaged in a struggle for ideological dominance and international influence. Following the Soviet Union's collapse and the end of the Cold War in 1991, the U.S. emerged as the world's sole superpower.

The U.S. national government is a presidential constitutional republic and liberal democracy with three separate branches of government: legislative, executive, and judicial. It has a bicameral national legislature composed of the House of Representatives, a lower house based on population; and the Senate, an upper house based on equal representation for each state. Substantial autonomy is given to states and several territories, with a political culture that emphasizes liberty, equality under the law, individualism, and limited government.

One of the world's most developed countries, the United States ranks among the highest in the world in international measures of income, wealth, economic competitiveness, productivity, innovation, human rights, and higher education. It has the highest median income per capita of any non-microstate and possesses by far the largest amount of wealth of any country, with the American economy the largest nominally and accounting for over a quarter of global GDP. The U.S. is a founding member of the World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, NATO, Quadrilateral Security Dialogue, WHO, and a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council.


The first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" dates back to a letter from January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, a Continental Army aide to General George Washington, to Joseph Reed, Washington's aide-de-camp. Moylan expressed his desire to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the Revolutionary War effort.[20][21] The first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, on April 6, 1776.[22]

By June 1776, the name "United States of America" appeared in drafts of the Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union, authored by John Dickinson, a Founding Father from the Province of Pennsylvania,[23][24] and in the Declaration of Independence, written primarily by Thomas Jefferson and adopted by the Second Continental Congress in Philadelphia, on July 4, 1776.[23][25]


Template:For outline

Indigenous peoples[]

File:Extreme Makeover, Mesa Verde Edition - panoramio.jpg

Cliff Palace, built by Ancestral Puebloans in present-day Montezuma County, Colorado, between c. 1200 and 1275[26]

The first inhabitants of North America migrated from Siberia across the Bering land bridge at least 12,000 years ago;[27][28] the Clovis culture, which appeared around 11,000 BC, is believed to be the first widespread culture in the Americas.[29][30] Over time, indigenous North American cultures grew increasingly sophisticated, and some, such as the Mississippian culture, developed agriculture, architecture, and complex societies.[31] Indigenous peoples and cultures such as the Algonquian peoples,[32] Ancestral Puebloans,[33] and the Iroquois developed across the present-day United States.[34] Native population estimates of what is now the United States before the arrival of European immigrants range from around 500,000[35][36] to nearly 10 million.[36][37]

European colonization[]

File:Nouvelle-France map-en.svg

The 1750 colonial possessions of Britain (in pink and purple), France (in blue), and Spain (in orange) in present-day Canada and the United States

Christopher Columbus began exploring the Caribbean in 1492, leading to Spanish settlements in present-day Puerto Rico, Florida, and New Mexico.[38][39][40] France established its own settlements along the Mississippi River and Gulf of Mexico.[41] British colonization of the East Coast began with the Virginia Colony (1607) and Plymouth Colony (1620).[42][43] The Mayflower Compact and the Fundamental Orders of Connecticut established precedents for representative self-governance and constitutionalism that would develop throughout the American colonies.[44][45]

While European settlers experienced conflicts with Native Americans, they also engaged in trade, exchanging European tools for food and animal pelts.[46] The Columbian exchange was catastrophic for native populations. It is estimated that up to 95 percent of the indigenous populations in the Americas perished from infectious diseases during the years following European colonization;[47] remaining populations were often displaced by European expansion.[48][49] Colonial authorities pursued policies to force Native Americans to adopt European lifestyles,[50][51] and European settlers trafficked African slaves into the colonial United States through the Atlantic slave trade.[52]

The original Thirteen Colonies[lower-alpha 12] that would later found the United States were administered by Great Britain,[53] and had local governments with elections open to most white male property owners.[54][55] The colonial population grew rapidly, eclipsing Native American populations;[56] by the 1770s, the natural increase of the population was such that only a small minority of Americans had been born overseas.[57] The colonies' distance from Britain allowed for the development of self-governance,[58] and the First Great Awakening—a series of Christian revivals—fueled colonial interest in religious liberty.[59]

Revolution and expansion (1776–1861)[]

File:Declaration independence.jpg

Declaration of Independence, a portrait by John Trumbull depicting the Committee of Five presenting the draft of the Declaration to the Continental Congress on June 28, 1776, in Philadelphia

After winning the French and Indian War, Britain began to assert greater control over local colonial affairs, creating colonial political resistance; one of the primary colonial grievances was a denial of their rights as Englishmen, particularly the right to representation in the British government that taxed them. In 1774, the First Continental Congress met in Philadelphia, and passed a colonial boycott of British goods that proved effective. The British attempt to then disarm the colonists resulted in the 1775 Battles of Lexington and Concord, igniting the American Revolutionary War. At the Second Continental Congress, the colonies appointed George Washington commander-in-chief of the Continental Army and created a committee led by Thomas Jefferson to write the Declaration of Independence, adopted on July 4, 1776.[60] The political values of the American Revolution included liberty, inalienable individual rights; and the sovereignty of the people;[61] supporting republicanism and rejecting monarchy, aristocracy, and hereditary political power; virtue and faithfulness in the performance of civic duties; and vilification of corruption.[62] The Founding Fathers of the United States, which included George Washington, Benjamin Franklin, Alexander Hamilton, Thomas Jefferson, John Jay, James Madison, Thomas Paine, and John Adams, took inspiration from Ancient Greco-Roman, Renaissance, and Age of Enlightenment philosophies and ideas.[63][64]

After the British surrender at the siege of Yorktown in 1781, American sovereignty was internationally recognized by the Treaty of Paris (1783), through which the U.S. gained territory stretching west to the Mississippi River, north to present-day Canada, and south to Spanish Florida.[65] Ratified in 1781, the Articles of Confederation established a decentralized government that operated until 1789.[60] The Northwest Ordinance (1787) established the precedent by which the country's territory would expand with the admission of new states, rather than the expansion of existing states.[66] The U.S. Constitution was drafted at the 1787 Constitutional Convention to overcome the limitations of the Articles; it went into effect in 1789, creating a federation administered by three branches on the principle of checks and balances.[67] Washington was elected the country's first president under the Constitution, and the Bill of Rights was adopted in 1791 to allay concerns by skeptics of the more centralized government;[68][69] his resignations first as commander-in-chief after the Revolution and later President set a precedent followed by John Adams, establishing the peaceful transfer of power between rival parties.[70][71]

File:US Slave Free 1789-1861.gif

Animation showing the free/slave status of U.S. states and territories expansion, 1789–1861

In the late 18th century, American settlers began to expand westward, with a sense of manifest destiny.[72] The Louisiana Purchase (1803) from France nearly doubled the territory of the United States.[73] Lingering issues with Britain remained, leading to the War of 1812, which was fought to a draw.[74] Spain ceded Florida and their Gulf Coast territory in 1819.[75] The Missouri Compromise attempted to balance desires of northern states to prevent expansion of slavery in the country with those of southern states to expand it, admitting Missouri as a slave state and Maine as a free state and declared a policy of prohibiting slavery in the remaining Louisiana Purchase lands north of the 36°30′ parallel.[76] As Americans expanded further into land inhabited by Native Americans, the federal government often applied policies of Indian removal or assimilation.[77][78] The displacement prompted a long series of American Indian Wars west of the Mississippi River.[79][80] The Republic of Texas was annexed in 1845,[81] and the 1846 Oregon Treaty led to U.S. control of the present-day American Northwest.[82] Victory in the Mexican–American War resulted in the 1848 Mexican Cession of California and much of the present-day American Southwest.[72][83] The California Gold Rush of 1848–1849 spurred a huge migration of white settlers to the Pacific coast, leading to even more confrontations with Native populations. One of the most violent, the California genocide of thousands of Native inhabitants, lasted into the early 1870s,[84][85] just as additional western territories and states were created.[86]

Civil War (1861–1865)[]

File:US map 1864 Civil War divisions.svg

Division of the states during the American Civil War <templatestyles src="Legend/styles.css" />

  Union states
<templatestyles src="Legend/styles.css" />
  Border states
<templatestyles src="Legend/styles.css" />
  Confederate states
<templatestyles src="Legend/styles.css" />

During the colonial period, slavery was legal in the American colonies, though the practice began to be significantly questioned during the American Revolution.[87] States in The North enacted abolition laws,[88] though support for slavery strengthened in Southern states, as inventions such as the cotton gin made the institution increasingly profitable for Southern elites.[89][90][91] This sectional conflict regarding slavery culminated in the American Civil War (1861–1865).[92][93]

Eleven slave states seceded and formed the Confederate States of America, while the other states remained in the Union.[94] War broke out in April 1861 after the Confederacy bombarded Fort Sumter.[95] After the January 1863 Emancipation Proclamation, many freed slaves joined the Union Army.[96] The war began to turn in the Union's favor following the 1863 Siege of Vicksburg and Battle of Gettysburg, and the Confederacy surrendered in 1865 after the Union's victory in the Battle of Appomattox Court House.[97]

The Reconstruction era followed the war. After the assassination of President Abraham Lincoln, Reconstruction Amendments were passed to protect the rights of African Americans. National infrastructure, including transcontinental telegraph and railroads, spurred growth in the American frontier.[98]

Post-Civil War era (1865–1898)[]

File:Emigrants (i.e. immigrants) landing at Ellis Island -.webm

An Edison Studios film showing immigrants arriving at Ellis Island in New York Harbor, a major point of entry for European immigrants in the late 19th and early 20th centuries[99][100]

From 1865 through 1917 an unprecedented stream of immigrants arrived in the United States, including 24.4 million from Europe.[101] Most came through the port of New York City, and New York City and other large cities on the East Coast became home to large Jewish, Irish, and Italian populations, while many Germans and Central Europeans moved to the Midwest. At the same time, about one million French Canadians migrated from Quebec to New England.[102] During the Great Migration, millions of African Americans left the rural South for urban areas in the North.[103] Alaska was purchased from Russia in 1867.[104]

The Compromise of 1877 effectively ended Reconstruction and white supremacists took local control of Southern politics.[105][106] African Americans endured a period of heightened, overt racism following Reconstruction, a time often called the nadir of American race relations.[107][108] A series of Supreme Court decisions, including Plessy v. Ferguson, emptied the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Amendments of their force, allowing Jim Crow laws in the South to remain unchecked, sundown towns in the Midwest, and segregation in cities across the country, which would be reinforced by the policy of redlining later adopted by the federal Home Owners' Loan Corporation.[109]

An explosion of technological advancement accompanied by the exploitation of cheap immigrant labor[110] led to rapid economic development during the late 19th and early 20th centuries, allowing the United States to outpace England, France, and Germany combined.[111][112] This fostered the amassing of power by a few prominent industrialists, largely by their formation of trusts and monopolies to prevent competition.[113] Tycoons led the nation's expansion in the railroad, petroleum, and steel industries. The United States emerged as a pioneer of the automotive industry.[114] These changes were accompanied by significant increases in economic inequality, slum conditions, and social unrest, creating the environment for labor unions to begin to flourish.[115][116][117] This period eventually ended with the advent of the Progressive Era, which was characterized by significant reforms.[118][119]

Rise as a superpower (1898–1945)[]


The Trinity nuclear test in 1945, part of the Manhattan Project and the first detonation of a nuclear weapon. The World Wars permanently ended the country's policy of isolationism and left it as a world superpower.

Pro-American elements in Hawaii overthrew the Hawaiian monarchy; the islands were annexed in 1898. Puerto Rico, Guam, and the Philippines were ceded by Spain following the Spanish–American War.[120] American Samoa was acquired by the United States in 1900 after the Second Samoan Civil War.[121] The U.S. Virgin Islands were purchased from Denmark in 1917.[122] The United States entered World War I alongside the Allies of World War I, helping to turn the tide against the Central Powers.[123] In 1920, a constitutional amendment granted nationwide women's suffrage.[124] During the 1920s and 30s, radio for mass communication and the invention of early television transformed communications nationwide.[125] The Wall Street Crash of 1929 triggered the Great Depression, which President Franklin D. Roosevelt responded to with New Deal social and economic policies.[126][127]

At first neutral during World War II, the U.S. began supplying war materiel to the Allies of World War II in March 1941 and entered the war in December after the Empire of Japan's attack on Pearl Harbor.[128][129] The U.S. developed the first nuclear weapons and used them against the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in August 1945, ending the war.[130][131] The United States was one of the "Four Policemen" who met to plan the postwar world, alongside the United Kingdom, Soviet Union, and China.[132][133] The U.S. emerged relatively unscathed from the war, with even greater economic and international political influence.[134]

Cold War (1945–1991)[]

File:Reagan and Gorbachev signing.jpg

Mikhail Gorbachev and Ronald Reagan sign the Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty at the White House, 1987.

After World War II, the United States entered the Cold War, where geopolitical tensions between the U.S. and the Soviet Union led the two countries to dominate world affairs.[135] The U.S. engaged in regime change against governments perceived to be aligned with the Soviet Union, and competed in the Space Race, culminating in the first crewed Moon landing in 1969.[136][137][138][139]

Domestically, the U.S. experienced economic growth, urbanization, and population growth following World War II.[140] The civil rights movement emerged, with Martin Luther King Jr. becoming a prominent leader in the early 1960s.[141] The Great Society plan of President Lyndon Johnson's administration resulted in significant and broad reaching laws, policies and a constitutional amendment to counteract some of the worst effects of lingering institutional racism.[142] The counterculture movement in the U.S. brought significant social changes, including the liberalization of attitudes towards recreational drug use and sexuality as well as open defiance of the military draft and opposition to intervention in Vietnam.[143][144][145] The societal shift in the roles of women partly resulted in large increases in female labor participation around the 1970s, and by 1985 the majority of women aged 16 and over were employed.[146] The late 1980s and early 1990s saw the collapse of the Warsaw Pact and the dissolution of the Soviet Union, which marked the end of the Cold War and solidified the U.S. as the world's sole superpower.[147][148][149][150]

Contemporary (1991–present)[]

File:Explosion following the plane impact into the South Tower (WTC 2) - B6019~11.jpg

The Twin Towers in New York City during the September 11 attacks of 2001

The 1990s saw the longest recorded economic expansion in American history, a dramatic decline in crime, and advances in technology, with the World Wide Web, the evolution of the Pentium microprocessor in accordance with Moore's law, rechargeable lithium-ion batteries, the first gene therapy trial, and cloning all emerging and being improved upon throughout the decade. The Human Genome Project was formally launched in 1990, while Nasdaq became the first stock market in the United States to trade online in 1998.[151] In 1991, an American-led international coalition of states expelled an Iraqi invasion force from Kuwait in the Gulf War.[152]

The September 11, 2001 attacks by the pan-Islamist militant organization Al-Qaeda led to the war on terror and subsequent military interventions in Afghanistan and Iraq.[153][154] The cultural impact of the attacks was profound and long-lasting.

The U.S. housing bubble culminated in 2007 with the Great Recession, the largest economic contraction since the Great Depression.[155] Coming to a head in the 2010s, political polarization increased as sociopolitical debates on cultural issues dominated politics.[156] This polarization was capitalized upon in the January 2021 Capitol attack,[157] when a mob of protesters entered the U.S. Capitol building and attempted to prevent the peaceful transfer of power.[158]



A topographic map of the United States

The United States is the world's third-largest country by land and total area behind Russia and Canada.[lower-alpha 4][159][160] The 48 contiguous states and the District of Columbia occupy a combined area of 3,119,885 square miles (8,080,470 km2).[161][162] The coastal plain of the Atlantic seaboard gives way to inland forests and rolling hills in the Piedmont plateau region.[163]

The Appalachian Mountains and the Adirondack massif separate the East Coast from the Great Lakes and the grasslands of the Midwest.[164] The Mississippi River System—the world's fourth longest river system—runs mainly north–south through the heart of the country. The flat, fertile prairie of the Great Plains stretches to the west, interrupted by a highland region in the southeast.[164]

The Rocky Mountains, west of the Great Plains, extend north to south across the country, peaking at over 14,000 feet (4,300 m) in Colorado.[165] Farther west are the rocky Great Basin and Chihuahua, Sonoran, and Mojave deserts.[166] The Sierra Nevada and Cascade mountain ranges run close to the Pacific coast. The lowest and highest points in the contiguous United States are in the state of California,[167] about 84 miles (135 km) apart.[168] At an elevation of 20,310 feet (6,190.5 m), Alaska's Denali is the highest peak in the country and continent.[169] Active volcanoes are common throughout Alaska's Alexander and Aleutian Islands, and Hawaii consists of volcanic islands. The supervolcano underlying Yellowstone National Park in the Rockies is the continent's largest volcanic feature.[170] In 2021 the United States had 8% of global permanent meadows and pastures and 10% of cropland.[171]


File:Köppen Climate Types US 50.png

The Köppen climate types of the United States

With its large size and geographic variety, the United States includes most climate types. East of the 100th meridian, the climate ranges from humid continental in the north to humid subtropical in the south.[172] The western Great Plains are semi-arid. Many mountainous areas of the American West have an alpine climate. The climate is arid in the Southwest, Mediterranean in coastal California, and oceanic in coastal Oregon, Washington, and southern Alaska. Most of Alaska is subarctic or polar. Hawaii and the southern tip of Florida are tropical, as well as its territories in the Caribbean and the Pacific.[173]

States bordering the Gulf of Mexico are prone to hurricanes, and most of the world's tornadoes occur in the country, mainly in Tornado Alley.[174] Overall, the United States receives more high-impact extreme weather incidents than any other country.[175] Extreme weather became more frequent in the U.S. in the 21st century, with three times the number of reported heat waves as in the 1960s. In the American Southwest, droughts became more persistent and more severe.[176]

Biodiversity and conservation[]

File:About to Launch (26075320352).jpg

The bald eagle, the national bird of the United States since 1782[177]

The U.S. is one of 17 megadiverse countries containing large numbers of endemic species: about 17,000 species of vascular plants occur in the contiguous United States and Alaska, and over 1,800 species of flowering plants are found in Hawaii, few of which occur on the mainland.[178] The United States is home to 428 mammal species, 784 birds, 311 reptiles, 295 amphibians,[179] and 91,000 insect species.[180]

There are 63 national parks, and hundreds of other federally managed parks, forests, and wilderness areas, managed by the National Park Service and other agencies.[181] About 28% of the country's land is publicly owned and federally managed,[182] primarily in the western states.[183] Most of this land is protected, though some is leased for commercial use, and less than one percent is used for military purposes.[184][185]

Environmental issues in the United States include debates on non-renewable resources and nuclear energy, air and water pollution, biodiversity, logging and deforestation,[186][187] and climate change.[188][189] The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is the federal agency charged with addressing most environmental-related issues.[190] The idea of wilderness has shaped the management of public lands since 1964, with the Wilderness Act.[191] The Endangered Species Act of 1973 provides a way to protect threatened and endangered species and their habitats. The United States Fish and Wildlife Service implements and enforces the Act.[192] As of 2022, the U.S. ranked 43rd among 180 countries in the Environmental Performance Index.[193] The country joined the Paris Agreement on climate change in 2016 and has many other environmental commitments.[194]

Government and politics[]

File:US Capitol west side.JPG

The Capitol and its two legislative chambers, the Senate (left) and the House of Representatives (right)

File:White House lawn (long tightly cropped).jpg

The White House, the residence and workplace of the U.S. president and the offices of the presidential staff

File:Panorama of United States Supreme Court Building at Dusk.jpg

The Supreme Court Building, which houses the nation's highest court

The United States is a federal republic of 50 states, with its capital in a federal district, asserting sovereignty over five unincorporated territories and several uninhabited island possessions (some of which are disputed).[195][196] It is the world's oldest surviving federation, and, according to the World Economic Forum, the oldest democracy as well.[197] It is a liberal representative democracy "in which majority rule is tempered by minority rights protected by law."[198] The Constitution of the United States serves as the country's supreme legal document, also establishing the structure and responsibilities of the national federal government and its relationship with the individual states.[199]

National government[]

Comprised of three branches, all headquartered in Washington, D.C., the federal government is the national government of the United States. It is regulated by a strong system of checks and balances.[200]

  • The U.S. Congress, a bicameral legislature, made up of the Senate and the House of Representatives, makes federal law, declares war, approves treaties, has the power of the purse,[201] and has the power of impeachment.[202] The Senate has 100 members (2 from each state), elected for a six-year term. The House of Representatives has 435 members from single member congressional districts allocated to each state on the basis of population, elected for a two-year term.[203]
  • The U.S. president is the commander-in-chief of the military, can veto legislative bills before they become law (subject to congressional override), and appoints the members of the Cabinet (subject to Senate approval) and other officials, who administer and enforce federal laws and policies through their respective agencies.[204] The president and the vice president run and are elected together in a presidential election. Unlike any others in American politics, it is an indirect election, with the winner being determined by votes cast by electors of the Electoral College. The President and Vice President serve a four-year term and may be elected to the office no more than twice.[205]
  • The U.S. federal judiciary, whose judges are all appointed for life by the President with Senate approval, consists primarily of the U.S. Supreme Court, the U.S. courts of appeals, and the U.S. district courts. The U.S. Supreme Court interprets laws and overturn those they find unconstitutional.[206] The Supreme Court is led by the chief justice of the United States. It has nine members who serve for life. The members are appointed by the sitting president when a vacancy becomes available.[207]

The three-branch system is known as the presidential system, in contrast to the parliamentary system, where the executive is part of the legislative body. Many countries around the world copied this aspect of the 1789 Constitution of the United States, especially in the Americas.[208]

Political parties[]

File:US state Legislature and Governor Control.svg

U.S. state governments (governor and legislature) by party control: <templatestyles src="Legend/styles.css" />

  Democratic control
<templatestyles src="Legend/styles.css" />
  Republican control
<templatestyles src="Legend/styles.css" />
  Split control

The Constitution is silent on political parties. However, they developed independently in the 18th century with the Federalist and Anti-Federalist parties.[209] Since then, the United States has operated as a de facto two-party system, though the parties in that system have been different at different times.

The two main national parties are presently the Democratic and the Republican. The former is perceived as relatively liberal in its political platform while the latter is perceived as relatively conservative.[210] Each has a primary system to nominate a presidential ticket, and each runs candidates for other offices in every state in the Union. Other smaller and less influential parties exist but do not have the national scope and breadth of the two main parties.


In the American federal system, sovereign powers are shared between two levels of elected government: national and state. People in the states are also represented by local elected governments, which are administrative divisions of the states.[211] States are subdivided into counties or county equivalents, and further divided into municipalities. The District of Columbia is a federal district that contains the capital of the United States, the city of Washington.[212] The territories and the District of Columbia are administrative divisions of the federal government.[213] Template:USA image map

Foreign relations[]

File:67º Período de Sesiones de la Asamblea General de Naciones Unidas (8020913157).jpg

The United Nations headquarters has been situated along the East River in Midtown Manhattan since 1952; in 1945, the United States was a founding member of the UN.

The United States has an established structure of foreign relations, and it has the world's second-largest diplomatic corps as of 2024. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council,[214] and home to the United Nations headquarters.[215] The United States is a member of the G7,[216] G20,[217] and OECD intergovernmental organizations.[218] Almost all countries have embassies and many have consulates (official representatives) in the country. Likewise, nearly all countries host formal diplomatic missions with the United States, except Iran,[219] North Korea,[220] and Bhutan.[221] Though Taiwan does not have formal diplomatic relations with the U.S., it maintains close unofficial relations.[222] The United States regularly supplies Taiwan with military equipment to deter potential Chinese aggression.[223] Its geopolitical attention also turned to the Indo-Pacific when the United States joined the Quadrilateral Security Dialogue with Australia, India, and Japan.[224]

The United States has a "Special Relationship" with the United Kingdom[225] and strong ties with Canada,[226] Australia,[227] New Zealand,[228] the Philippines,[229] Japan,[230] South Korea,[231] Israel,[232] and several European Union countries (France, Italy, Germany, Spain, and Poland).[233] The U.S. works closely with its NATO allies on military and national security issues, and with countries in the Americas through the Organization of American States and the United States–Mexico–Canada Free Trade Agreement. In South America, Colombia is traditionally considered to be the closest ally of the United States.[234] The U.S. exercises full international defense authority and responsibility for Micronesia, the Marshall Islands, and Palau through the Compact of Free Association.[235] It has increasingly conducted strategic cooperation with India,[236] but its ties with China have steadily deteriorated.[237][238] Since 2014, the U.S. has become a key ally of Ukraine;[239] it has also provided the country with significant military equipment and other support in response to Russia's 2022 invasion.[240]


File:Aerial view of the Pentagon, Arlington, VA (38285035892).jpg

The Pentagon, the headquarters of the U.S. Department of Defense in Arlington County, Virginia, is one of the world's largest office buildings with about 6.5 million square feet (600,000 m2) of floor space.

The President is the commander-in-chief of the United States Armed Forces and appoints its leaders, the secretary of defense and the Joint Chiefs of Staff. The Department of Defense, which is headquartered at the Pentagon near Washington, D.C., administers five of the six service branches, which are made up of the Army, Marine Corps, Navy, Air Force, and Space Force. The Coast Guard is administered by the Department of Homeland Security in peacetime and can be transferred to the Department of the Navy in wartime.[241]

The United States spent $877 billion on its military in 2022, which is by far the largest amount of any country, making up 39% of global military spending and accounting for 3.5% of the country's GDP.[242][243] The U.S. has 45% of the world's nuclear weapons, the second-largest amount after Russia.[244]

The United States has the third-largest combined armed forces in the world, behind the Chinese People's Liberation Army and Indian Armed Forces.[245] The military operates about 800 bases and facilities abroad,[246] and maintains deployments greater than 100 active duty personnel in 25 foreign countries.[247]

Law enforcement and crime[]

File:Washington DC, FBI - panoramio.jpg

J. Edgar Hoover Building, the headquarters of the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), in Washington, D.C.

There are about 18,000 U.S. police agencies from local to national level in the United States.[248] Law in the United States is mainly enforced by local police departments and sheriff departments in their municipal or county jurisdictions. The state police departments have authority in their respective state, and federal agencies such as the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) and the U.S. Marshals Service have national jurisdiction and specialized duties, such as protecting civil rights, national security and enforcing U.S. federal courts' rulings and federal laws.[249] State courts conduct most civil and criminal trials,[250] and federal courts handle designated crimes and appeals of state court decisions.[251]

As of January 2023, the United States has the sixth highest per-capita incarceration rate in the world, at 531 people per 100,000; and the largest prison and jail population in the world with almost 2 million people incarcerated.[252][253][254] An analysis of the World Health Organization Mortality Database from 2010 showed U.S. homicide rates "were 7 times higher than in other high-income countries, driven by a gun homicide rate that was 25 times higher."[255]


File:US one dollar bill, obverse, series 2009.jpg

The U.S. dollar, most-used currency in international transactions and the world's foremost reserve currency[256]

File:Aerial Microsoft West Campus August 2009.jpg

Microsoft campus, in Redmond, Washington, is the headquarters of Microsoft, the world's biggest company by market capitalization.[257]

The U.S. has been the world's largest economy nominally since about 1890.[258] The U.S. gross domestic product (GDP) of $27 trillion is the largest in the world, constituting over 15% of gross world product at purchasing power parity (PPP).[259][13] From 1983 to 2008, U.S. real compounded annual GDP growth was 3.3%, compared to a 2.3% weighted average for the rest of the Group of Seven.[260] The country ranks first in the world by disposable income per capita, nominal GDP,[261] second by GDP (PPP) after China,[13] and ninth by GDP (PPP) per capita.[13]

Of the world's 500 largest companies, 136 are headquartered in the U.S.[262] The U.S. dollar is the currency most used in international transactions and is the world's foremost reserve currency, backed by the country's dominant economy, its military, the petrodollar system, and its linked eurodollar and large U.S. treasuries market.[256] Several countries use it as their official currency and in others it is the de facto currency.[263][264] It has free trade agreements with several countries, including the USMCA.[265] The U.S. ranked second in the Global Competitiveness Report in 2019, after Singapore.[266] While its economy has reached a post-industrial level of development, the United States remains an industrial power.[267] As of 2021, the U.S. is the second-largest manufacturing country after China.[268]

File:Gaming-Wall-Street BTS Prodigium-266.jpg

The New York Stock Exchange on Wall Street, the world's largest stock exchange by market capitalization[269]

New York City is the world's principal financial center[270][271] and the epicenter of the world's largest metropolitan economy.[272] The New York Stock Exchange and Nasdaq, both located in New York City, are the world's two largest stock exchanges by market capitalization and trade volume.[273][274] The United States is at or near the forefront of technological advancement and innovation[275] in many economic fields, especially in artificial intelligence; computers; pharmaceuticals; and medical, aerospace and military equipment.[276] The country's economy is fueled by abundant natural resources, a well-developed infrastructure, and high productivity.[277] The largest U.S. trading partners are the European Union, Mexico, Canada, China, Japan, South Korea, the United Kingdom, Vietnam, India, and Taiwan.[278] The United States is the world's largest importer and the second-largest exporter after China.[279] It is by far the world's largest exporter of services.[280]

Americans have the highest average household and employee income among OECD member states,[281] and the fourth-highest median household income,[282] up from sixth-highest in 2013.[283] Wealth in the United States is highly concentrated; the richest 10% of the adult population own 72% of the country's household wealth, while the bottom 50% own just 2%.[284] Income inequality in the U.S. remains at record highs,[285] with the top fifth of earners taking home more than half of all income[286] and giving the U.S. one of the widest income distributions among OECD members.[287][288] The U.S. ranks first in the number of dollar billionaires and millionaires, with 735 billionaires and nearly 22 million millionaires (as of 2023).[289] There were about 582,500 sheltered and unsheltered homeless persons in the U.S. in 2022, with 60% staying in an emergency shelter or transitional housing program.[290] In 2018, six million children experienced food insecurity.[291] Feeding America estimates that around one in seven, or approximately 11 million, children experience hunger and do not know where they will get their next meal or when.[292] As of 2021, 38 million people, about 12% of the U.S. population, were living in poverty.[293]

The United States has a smaller welfare state and redistributes less income through government action than most other high-income countries.[294][295] It is the only advanced economy that does not guarantee its workers paid vacation nationally[296] and is one of a few countries in the world without federal paid family leave as a legal right.[297] The United States has a higher percentage of low-income workers than almost any other developed country, largely because of a weak collective bargaining system and lack of government support for at-risk workers.[298]

Science, technology, and energy[]

File:Buzz salutes the U.S. Flag-crop.jpg

U.S. astronaut Buzz Aldrin saluting the American flag on the Moon during the 1969 Apollo 11 mission; the United States is the only country that has landed crews on the lunar surface.

The United States has been a leader in technological innovation since the late 19th century and scientific research since the mid-20th century. Methods for producing interchangeable parts and the establishment of a machine tool industry enabled the large-scale manufacturing of U.S. consumer products in the late 19th century. By the early 20th century, factory electrification, the introduction of the assembly line, and other labor-saving techniques created the system of mass production.[299] The United States is a leader in the development of artificial intelligence technology and has maintained a space program since the late 1950s, with plans for long-term habitation of the Moon.[300][301]

In 2022, the United States was the country with the second-highest number of published scientific papers.[302] As of 2021, the U.S. ranked second by the number of patent applications, and third by trademark and industrial design applications.[303] In 2023, the United States ranked 3rd in the Global Innovation Index.[304]

As of 2022, the United States receives approximately 81% of its energy from fossil fuel and the largest source of the country's energy came from petroleum (35.8%), followed by natural gas (33.4%), renewable sources (13.3%), coal (9.8%), and nuclear power (8%).[305][306] The United States constitutes less than 5% of the world's population, but consumes 17% of the world's energy.[307][308] The U.S. ranks as the second-highest emitter of greenhouse gases.[309]


File:Atlanta Hartsfield-Jackson (cropped).jpg

Hartsfield–Jackson Atlanta International Airport, serving the Atlanta metropolitan area, is the world's busiest airport by passenger traffic with over 93 million passengers annually in 2022.[310]

Personal transportation in the United States is dominated by automobiles,[311][312] which operate on a network of 4 million miles (6.4 million kilometers) of public roads, making it the longest network in the world.[313][314] The Oldsmobile Curved Dash and the Ford Model T, both American cars, are considered the first mass-produced[315] and mass-affordable[316] cars, respectively. As of 2022, the United States is the second-largest manufacturer of motor vehicles[317] and is home to Tesla, the world's most valuable car company.[318] American automotive company General Motors held the title of the world's best-selling automaker from 1931 to 2008.[319] Currently, the American automotive industry is the world's second-largest automobile market by sales,[320] and the U.S. has the highest vehicle ownership per capita in the world,[321] with 910 vehicles per 1000 people.[322] The United States's rail transport network, the longest network in the world,[323] handles mostly freight.[324][325]

The American civil airline industry is entirely privately owned and has been largely deregulated since 1978, while most major airports are publicly owned.[326] The three largest airlines in the world by passengers carried are U.S.-based; American Airlines is number one after its 2013 acquisition by US Airways.[327] Of the world's 50 busiest passenger airports, 16 are in the United States, including the top five and the busiest, Hartsfield–Jackson Atlanta International Airport.[328][329] As of 2022, there are 19,969 airports in the U.S., of which 5,193 are designated as "public use", including for general aviation and other activities.[330]

Of the fifty busiest container ports, four are located in the United States, of which the busiest is the Port of Los Angeles.[331] The country's inland waterways are the world's fifth-longest, and total 41,009 km (25,482 mi).[332]



File:Aerial view of Hempstead, July 2019.JPG

As of 2020, the majority of the U.S. population lived in suburbs. Above: Nassau County, New York, immediately east of New York City.

The U.S. Census Bureau reported 331,449,281 residents as of April 1, 2020,[lower-alpha 13][333] making the United States the third-most populous country in the world, after China and India.[334] According to the Bureau's U.S. Population Clock, on January 28, 2021, the U.S. population had a net gain of one person every 100 seconds, or about 864 people per day.[335] In 2018, 52% of Americans age 15 and over were married, 6% were widowed, 10% were divorced, and 32% had never been married.[336] In 2021, the total fertility rate for the U.S. stood at 1.7 children per woman,[337] and it had the world's highest rate of children (23%) living in single-parent households in 2019.[338]

The United States has a diverse population; 37 ancestry groups have more than one million members.[339] White Americans with ancestry from Europe, the Middle East or North Africa, form the largest racial and ethnic group at 57.8% of the United States population.[340][341] Hispanic and Latino Americans form the second-largest group and are 18.7% of the United States population. African Americans constitute the country's third-largest ancestry group and are 12.1% of the total U.S. population.[339] Asian Americans are the country's fourth-largest group, composing 5.9% of the United States population, while the country's 3.7 million Native Americans account for about 1%.[339] In 2020, the median age of the United States population was 38.5 years.[334]


File:Languages cp-02.svg

Most spoken languages in the U.S.

While many languages are spoken in the United States, English is by far the most commonly spoken and written.[342] Although there is no official language at the federal level, some laws, such as U.S. naturalization requirements, standardize English, and most states have declared it the official language.[343] Three states and four U.S. territories have recognized local or indigenous languages in addition to English, including Hawaii (Hawaiian),[344] Alaska (twenty Native languages),[lower-alpha 14][345] South Dakota (Sioux),[346] American Samoa (Samoan), Puerto Rico (Spanish), Guam (Chamorro), and the Northern Mariana Islands (Carolinian and Chamorro). In Puerto Rico, Spanish is more widely spoken than English.[347]

According to the American Community Survey in 2010, some 229 million people out of the total U.S. population of 308 million spoke only English at home. About 37 million spoke Spanish at home, making it the second most commonly used language. Other languages spoken at home by one million people or more include Chinese (2.8 million), Tagalog (1.6 million), Vietnamese (1.4 million), French (1.3 million), Korean (1.1 million), and German (1 million).[348]


File:Border USA Mexico.jpg

Mexico–United States border wall between San Diego (left) and Tijuana (right)

America's immigrant population, 51 million, is by far the world's largest in absolute terms.[349][350] In 2022, there were 87.7 million immigrants and U.S.-born children of immigrants in the United States, accounting for nearly 27% of the overall U.S. population.[351] In 2017, out of the U.S. foreign-born population, some 45% (20.7 million) were naturalized citizens, 27% (12.3 million) were lawful permanent residents, 6% (2.2 million) were temporary lawful residents, and 23% (10.5 million) were unauthorized immigrants.[352] In 2019, the top countries of origin for immigrants were Mexico (24% of immigrants), India (6%), China (5%), the Philippines (4.5%), and El Salvador (3%).[353] The United States has led the world in refugee resettlement for decades, admitting more refugees than the rest of the world combined.[354]


Religious affiliation in the U.S., according to a 2022 Gallup poll[7]

<templatestyles src="Legend/styles.css" />
  Protestantism (34%)
<templatestyles src="Legend/styles.css" />
  Catholicism (23%)
<templatestyles src="Legend/styles.css" />
  Non-specific Christian (11%)
<templatestyles src="Legend/styles.css" />
  Mormonism (2%)
<templatestyles src="Legend/styles.css" />
  Judaism (2%)
<templatestyles src="Legend/styles.css" />
  Other religions (6%)
<templatestyles src="Legend/styles.css" />
  Unaffiliated (21%)
<templatestyles src="Legend/styles.css" />
  Unanswered (1%)

The First Amendment guarantees the free exercise of religion and forbids Congress from passing laws respecting its establishment.[355][356] Religious practice is widespread, among the most diverse in the world,[357] and profoundly vibrant.[358] The country has the world's largest Christian population.[359] A majority of the global Jewish population lives in the United States, as measured by the Law of Return.[360] Other notable faiths include Buddhism, Hinduism, Islam, many New Age movements, and Native American religions.[361] Religious practice varies significantly by region.[362] "Ceremonial deism" is common in American culture.[363]

The overwhelming majority of Americans believe in a higher power or spiritual force, engage in spiritual practices such as prayer, and consider themselves religious or spiritual.[364][365] In the "Bible Belt", located within the Southern United States, evangelical Protestantism plays a significant role culturally, whereas New England and the Western United States tend to be more secular.[362] Mormonism—a Restorationist movement, whose members migrated westward from Missouri and Illinois under the leadership of Brigham Young in 1847 after the assassination of Joseph Smith[366]—remains the predominant religion in Utah to this day.[367]


About 82% of Americans live in urban areas, including suburbs;[159] about half of those reside in cities with populations over 50,000.[368] In 2022, 333 incorporated municipalities had populations over 100,000, nine cities had more than one million residents, and four cities (New York City, Los Angeles, Chicago, and Houston) had populations exceeding two million.[369] Many U.S. metropolitan populations are growing rapidly, particularly in the South and West.[370] Template:Largest metropolitan areas of the United States


File:Texas medical center.jpg

Texas Medical Center in Houston is the largest medical complex in the world.[371][372] As of 2018, it employed 120,000 people and treated 10 million patients annually.[373]

According to the Centers for Disease Control (CDC), average American life expectancy at birth was 77.5 years in 2022 (74.8 years for men and 80.2 years for women). This was a gain of 1.1 years from 76.4 years in 2021, but the CDC noted that the new average "didn't fully offset the loss of 2.4 years between 2019 and 2021". The COVID pandemic and higher overall mortality due to opioid overdoses and suicides were held mostly responsible for the previous drop in life expectancy.[374] The same report stated that the 2022 gains in average U.S. life expectancy were especially significant for men, Hispanics, and American Indian–Alaskan Native people (AIAN). Starting in 1998, the life expectancy in the U.S. fell behind that of other wealthy industrialized countries, and Americans' "health disadvantage" gap has been increasing ever since.[375] The U.S. has one of the highest suicide rates among high-income countries.[376] Approximately one-third of the U.S. adult population is obese and another third is overweight.[377] The U.S. healthcare system far outspends that of any other country, measured both in per capita spending and as a percentage of GDP, but attains worse healthcare outcomes when compared to peer countries for reasons that are debated.[378] The United States is the only developed country without a system of universal healthcare, and a significant proportion of the population that does not carry health insurance.[379] Government-funded healthcare coverage for the poor (Medicaid) and for those age 65 and older (Medicare) is available to Americans who meet the programs' income or age qualifications. In 2010, former President Obama passed the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act.[lower-alpha 15][380]



The University of Virginia, founded by Thomas Jefferson in 1819, is one of many public colleges and universities in the United States.

American K-12 education is operated by state and local governments and regulated by the United States Department of Education through restrictions on federal grants.[original research?] In most states, children are required to attend school from the age of five or six (beginning with kindergarten or first grade) until they turn 18 (generally bringing them through twelfth grade, the end of high school); some states allow students to leave school at 16 or 17.[381] The U.S. spends more on education per student than any country in the world,[382] spending an average of $12,794 per year on public elementary and secondary school students in the 2016–2017 school year.[383] Of Americans 25 and older, 84.6% graduated from high school, 52.6% attended some college, 27.2% earned a bachelor's degree, and 9.6% earned graduate degrees.[384] The basic literacy rate is near-universal.[159][385] The country has the most Nobel Prize winners in history, with 411 (having won 413 awards).[386][387]

The United States tertiary education is primarily through the state university system, though many private universities and colleges serve about 20% of students. Large amounts of federal student financial aid are provided in the form of grants and loans.

Colleges and universities directly funded by the federal government are limited to military personnel and government employees and include the United States service academies, Naval Postgraduate School, and military staff colleges. Many of the world's top universities, as listed by various ranking organizations, are in the United States, including 19 of the top 25.[388][389] There are local community colleges with generally more open admission policies, shorter academic programs, and lower tuition.[390]

As for public expenditures on higher education, the U.S. spends more per student than the OECD average, and more than all nations in combined public and private spending.[391] Despite some student loan forgiveness programs in place,[392] student loan debt has increased by 102% in the last decade,[393] and exceeded 1.7 trillion dollars as of 2022.[394]

Culture and society[]


The Statue of Liberty (Liberty Enlightening the World) on Liberty Island in New York Harbor was an 1866 gift from France that has become an iconic symbol of the American Dream.[395]

Americans have traditionally been characterized by a unifying political belief in an "American creed" emphasizing liberty, equality under the law, democracy, social equality, property rights, and a preference for limited government.[396][397] Culturally, the country has been described as having the values of individualism and personal autonomy,[398][399] having a strong work ethic,[400] competitiveness,[401] and voluntary altruism towards others.[402][403][404] According to a 2016 study by the Charities Aid Foundation, Americans donated 1.44% of total GDP to charity, the highest rate in the world by a large margin.[405] The United States is home to a wide variety of ethnic groups, traditions, and values. It has acquired significant cultural and economic soft power.[406][407]

Nearly all present Americans or their ancestors came from Europe, Africa, and Asia ("the Old World") within the past five centuries.[408] Mainstream American culture is a Western culture largely derived from the traditions of European immigrants with influences from many other sources, such as traditions brought by slaves from Africa.[409] More recent immigration from Asia and especially Latin America has added to a cultural mix that has been described as a homogenizing melting pot, and a heterogeneous salad bowl, with immigrants contributing to, and often assimilating into, mainstream American culture. The American Dream, or the perception that Americans enjoy high social mobility, plays a key role in attracting immigrants.[410] Whether this perception is accurate has been a topic of debate.[411][412][413] While mainstream culture holds that the United States is a classless society,[414] scholars identify significant differences between the country's social classes, affecting socialization, language, and values.[415] Americans tend to greatly value socioeconomic achievement, but being ordinary or average is promoted by some as a noble condition as well.[416]

The United States is considered to have the strongest protections of free speech of any country under the First Amendment,[417] which protects flag desecration, hate speech, blasphemy, and lese-majesty as forms of protected expression.[418][419][420] A 2016 Pew Research Center poll found that Americans were the most supportive of free expression of any polity measured.[421] They are the "most supportive of freedom of the press and the right to use the Internet without government censorship."[422] It is a socially progressive country[423] with permissive attitudes surrounding human sexuality.[424] LGBT rights in the United States are advanced by global standards.[424][425][426]


File:Mark Twain by AF Bradley.jpg

Mark Twain, who William Faulkner called "the father of American literature"[427]

Colonial American authors were influenced by John Locke and various other Enlightenment philosophers.[428][429] Before and shortly after the Revolutionary War, the newspaper rose to prominence, filling a demand for anti-British national literature.[430][431] Led by Ralph Waldo Emerson and Margaret Fuller in New England,[432] transcendentalism branched from Unitarianism as the first major American philosophical movement.[433][434] During the nineteenth-century American Renaissance, writers like Walt Whitman and Harriet Beecher Stowe established a distinctive American literary tradition.[435][436] As literacy rates rose, periodicals published more stories centered around industrial workers, women, and the rural poor.[437][438] Naturalism, regionalism, and realism—the latter associated with Mark Twain—were the major literary movements of the period.[439][440]

While modernism generally took on an international character, modernist authors working within the United States more often rooted their work in specific regions, peoples, and cultures.[441] Following the Great Migration to northern cities, African-American and black West Indian authors of the Harlem Renaissance developed an independent tradition of literature that rebuked a history of inequality and celebrated black culture. An important cultural export during the Jazz Age, these writings were a key influence on the négritude philosophy.[442][443] In the 1950s, an ideal of homogeneity led many authors to attempt to write the Great American Novel,[444] while the Beat Generation rejected this conformity, using styles that elevated the impact of the spoken word over mechanics to describe drug use, sexuality, and the failings of society.[445][446] Contemporary literature is more pluralistic than in previous eras, with the closest thing to a unifying feature being a trend toward self-conscious experiments with language.[447]

Mass media[]

File:Buildings in Philadelphia - IMG 7505.JPG

Comcast Center in Philadelphia, headquarters of Comcast, the world's largest telecommunications and media conglomerate

Media is broadly uncensored, with the First Amendment providing significant protections, as reiterated in New York Times Co. v. United States.[417] The four major broadcasters in the U.S. are the National Broadcasting Company (NBC), Columbia Broadcasting System (CBS), American Broadcasting Company (ABC), and Fox Broadcasting Company (FOX). The four major broadcast television networks are all commercial entities. Cable television offers hundreds of channels catering to a variety of niches.[448] As of 2021, about 83% of Americans over age 12 listen to broadcast radio, while about 40% listen to podcasts.[449] As of 2020, there were 15,460 licensed full-power radio stations in the U.S. according to the Federal Communications Commission (FCC).[450] Much of the public radio broadcasting is supplied by NPR, incorporated in February 1970 under the Public Broadcasting Act of 1967.[451]

U.S. newspapers with a global reach and reputation include The Wall Street Journal, The New York Times, The Washington Post, and USA Today.[452] About 800 publications are produced in Spanish.[453][454] With few exceptions, newspapers are privately owned, either by large chains such as Gannett or McClatchy, which own dozens or even hundreds of newspapers; by small chains that own a handful of papers; or, in a situation that is increasingly rare, by individuals or families. Major cities often have alternative newspapers to complement the mainstream daily papers, such as The Village Voice in New York City and LA Weekly in Los Angeles. The five most popular websites used in the U.S. are Google, YouTube, Amazon, Yahoo, and Facebook, with all of them being American companies.[455]

As of 2022, the video game market of the United States is the world's largest by revenue.[456] There are 444 publishers, developers, and hardware companies in California alone.[457]


File:Broadway Theaters 45th Street Night.jpg

Broadway theatres in Theater District, Manhattan

The United States is well known for its cinema and theater. Mainstream theater in the United States derives from the old European theatrical tradition and has been heavily influenced by the British theater.[458] By the middle of the 19th century America had created new distinct dramatic forms in the Tom Shows, the showboat theater and the minstrel show.[459] The central hub of the American theater scene is Manhattan, with its divisions of Broadway, off-Broadway, and off-off-Broadway.[460]

Many movie and television stars have gotten their big break working in New York productions. Outside New York City, many cities have professional regional or resident theater companies that produce their own seasons. The biggest-budget theatrical productions are musicals. U.S. theater has an active community theater culture.[461]

The Tony Awards recognizes excellence in live Broadway theatre and are presented at an annual ceremony in Manhattan. The awards are given for Broadway productions and performances. One is also given for regional theatre. Several discretionary non-competitive awards are given as well, including a Special Tony Award, the Tony Honors for Excellence in Theatre, and the Isabelle Stevenson Award.[462]

Visual arts[]

File:Grant Wood - American Gothic - Google Art Project.jpg

American Gothic (1930) by Grant Wood is one of the most famous American paintings and is widely parodied.[463]

In the visual arts, the Hudson River School was a mid-19th-century movement in the tradition of European naturalism. The 1913 Armory Show in New York City, an exhibition of European modernist art, shocked the public and transformed the U.S. art scene.[464]

Georgia O'Keeffe, Marsden Hartley, and others experimented with new and individualistic styles, which would become known as American modernism. Major artistic movements such as the abstract expressionism of Jackson Pollock and Willem de Kooning and the pop art of Andy Warhol and Roy Lichtenstein developed largely in the United States. Major photographers include Alfred Stieglitz, Edward Steichen, Dorothea Lange, Edward Weston, James Van Der Zee, Ansel Adams, and Gordon Parks.[465]

The tide of modernism and then postmodernism has brought global fame to American architects, including Frank Lloyd Wright, Philip Johnson, and Frank Gehry.[466] The Metropolitan Museum of Art in Manhattan is the largest art museum in the United States.[467]


American folk music encompasses numerous music genres, variously known as traditional music, traditional folk music, contemporary folk music, or roots music. Many traditional songs have been sung within the same family or folk group for generations, and sometimes trace back to such origins as the British Isles, Mainland Europe, or Africa.[468] The rhythmic and lyrical styles of African-American music in particular have influenced American music.[469] Banjos were brought to America through the slave trade. Minstrel shows incorporating the instrument into their acts led to its increased popularity and widespread production in the 19th century.[470][471] The electric guitar, first invented in the 1930s, and mass-produced by the 1940s, had an enormous influence on popular music, in particular due to the development of rock and roll.[472]

File:Country music hall of fame2.jpg

The Country Music Hall of Fame and Museum in Nashville, Tennessee

Elements from folk idioms such as the blues and old-time music were adopted and transformed into popular genres with global audiences. Jazz grew from blues and ragtime in the early 20th century, developing from the innovations and recordings of composers such as W.C. Handy and Jelly Roll Morton. Louis Armstrong and Duke Ellington increased its popularity early in the 20th century.[473] Country music developed in the 1920s,[474] rock and roll in the 1930s,[472] and bluegrass[475] and rhythm and blues in the 1940s.[476] In the 1960s, Bob Dylan emerged from the folk revival to become one of the country's most celebrated songwriters.[477] The musical forms of punk and hip hop both originated in the United States in the 1970s.[478]

The United States has the world's largest music market with a total retail value of $15.9 billion in 2022.[479] Most of the world's major record companies are based in the U.S.; they are represented by the Recording Industry Association of America (RIAA).[480] Mid-20th-century American pop stars, such as Frank Sinatra[481] and Elvis Presley,[482] became global celebrities and best-selling music artists,[473] as have artists of the late 20th century, such as Michael Jackson,[483] Madonna,[484] Whitney Houston,[485] and Prince,[486] and of early 21st century such as Taylor Swift and Beyoncé.[487]


File:Carolina Herrera AW14 12.jpg

Haute couture fashion models on the catwalk during New York Fashion Week

The United States and China collectively account for the majority of global apparel demand. Apart from professional business attire, American fashion is eclectic and predominantly informal. While Americans' diverse cultural roots are reflected in their clothing, sneakers, jeans, T-shirts, and baseball caps are emblematic of American styles.[488] New York is considered to be one of the "big four" global fashion capitals, along with Paris, Milan, and London. A study demonstrated that general proximity to Manhattan's Garment District has been synonymous with American fashion since its inception in the early 20th century.[489]

The headquarters of many designer labels reside in Manhattan. Labels cater to niche markets, such as pre teens. There has been a trend in the United States fashion towards sustainable clothing.[490] New York Fashion Week is one of the most influential fashion weeks in the world, and occurs twice a year.[491]


File:Hollywood Sign (Zuschnitt).jpg

The iconic Hollywood Sign, in the Hollywood Hills, often regarded as the symbol of the American film industry

The U.S. film industry has a worldwide influence and following. Hollywood, a district in northern Los Angeles, the nation's second-most populous city, is also metonymous for the American filmmaking industry, the third-largest in the world, following India and Nigeria.[492][493][494] The major film studios of the United States are the primary source of the most commercially successful and most ticket-selling movies in the world.[495][496] Since the early 20th century, the U.S. film industry has largely been based in and around Hollywood, although in the 21st century an increasing number of films are not made there, and film companies have been subject to the forces of globalization.[497] The Academy Awards, popularly known as the Oscars, have been held annually by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences since 1929,[498] and the Golden Globe Awards have been held annually since January 1944.[499]

The industry enjoyed its golden years, in what is commonly referred to as the "Golden Age of Hollywood", from the early sound period until the early 1960s,[500] with screen actors such as John Wayne and Marilyn Monroe becoming iconic figures.[501][502] In the 1970s, "New Hollywood" or the "Hollywood Renaissance"[503] was defined by grittier films influenced by French and Italian realist pictures of the post-war period.[504] The 21st century was marked by the rise of American streaming platforms, which came to rival traditional cinema.[505][506]


File:2019-11-28 14 46 15 A single serving of Thanksgiving Dinner in the Parkway Village section of Ewing Township, Mercer County, New Jersey.jpg

A Thanksgiving dinner with roast turkey, mashed potatoes, pickles, corn, candied yams, cranberry jelly, shrimps, stuffing, green peas, deviled eggs, green salad and apple sauce

Early settlers were introduced by Native Americans to foods such as turkey, sweet potatoes, corn, squash, and maple syrup. Of the most enduring and pervasive examples are variations of the native dish called succotash. Early settlers and later immigrants combined these with foods they were familiar with, such as wheat flour,[507] beef, and milk to create a distinctive American cuisine.[508][509] New World crops, especially pumpkin, corn, potatoes, and turkey as the main course are part of a shared national menu on Thanksgiving, when many Americans prepare or purchase traditional dishes to celebrate the occasion.[510]

Characteristic American dishes such as apple pie, fried chicken, doughnuts, french fries, macaroni and cheese, ice cream, pizza, hamburgers, and hot dogs derive from the recipes of various immigrant groups.[511][512][513][514] Mexican dishes such as burritos and tacos preexisted the United States in areas later annexed from Mexico, and adaptations of Chinese cuisine as well as pasta dishes freely adapted from Italian sources are all widely consumed.[515] American chefs have had a significant impact on society both domestically and internationally. In 1946, the Culinary Institute of America was founded by Katharine Angell and Frances Roth. This would become the United States' most prestigious culinary school, where many of the most talented American chefs would study prior to successful careers.[516][517]

The United States restaurant industry was projected at $899 billion in sales for 2020,[518][519] and employed more than 15 million people, representing 10% of the nation's workforce directly.[518] It is the country's second-largest private employer and the third-largest employer overall.[520][521] The United States is home to over 220 Michelin Star rated restaurants, 70 of which are in New York City alone.[522] Wine has been produced in what is now the United States since the 1500s, with the first widespread production beginning in what is now New Mexico in 1628.[523][524][525] Today, wine production is undertaken in all fifty states, with California producing 84 percent of all US wine. With more than 1,100,000 acres (4,500 km2) under vine, the United States is the fourth-largest wine producing country in the world, after Italy, Spain, and France.[526][527]

The American fast-food industry, the world's first and largest, pioneered the drive-through format in the 1940s[528] and is often viewed as being a symbol of U.S. marketing dominance. American companies such as McDonald's,[529] Burger King, Pizza Hut, Kentucky Fried Chicken, and Domino's Pizza, among many others, have numerous outlets around the world.[530]


File:Commanders vs. Jaguars (52379056543).jpg

American football is the most popular sport in the United States; in this September 2022 National Football League game, the Jacksonville Jaguars play the Washington Commanders at FedExField.

The most popular spectator sports in the U.S. are American football, basketball, baseball, soccer, and ice hockey.[531] While most major U.S. sports such as baseball and American football have evolved out of European practices, basketball, volleyball, skateboarding, and snowboarding are American inventions, many of which have become popular worldwide.[532] Lacrosse and surfing arose from Native American and Native Hawaiian activities that predate European contact.[533] The market for professional sports in the United States was approximately $69 billion in July 2013, roughly 50% larger than that of all of Europe, the Middle East, and Africa combined.[534]

American football is by several measures the most popular spectator sport in the United States;[535] the National Football League has the highest average attendance of any sports league in the world, and the Super Bowl is watched by tens of millions globally.[536] However, baseball has been regarded as the U.S. "national sport" since the late 19th century. After American football, the next four most popular professional team sports are basketball, baseball, soccer, and ice hockey. Their premier leagues are, respectively, the National Basketball Association, Major League Baseball, Major League Soccer, and the National Hockey League. The most-watched individual sports in the U.S. are golf and auto racing, particularly NASCAR and IndyCar.[537][538]

On the collegiate level, earnings for the member institutions exceed $1 billion annually,[539] and college football and basketball attract large audiences, as the NCAA March Madness tournament and the College Football Playoff are some of the most watched national sporting events.[540] In the U.S., the intercollegiate sports level serves as a feeder system for professional sports. This differs greatly from practices in nearly all other countries, where publicly and privately funded sports organizations serve this function.[541]

Eight Olympic Games have taken place in the United States. The 1904 Summer Olympics in St. Louis, Missouri, were the first-ever Olympic Games held outside of Europe.[542] The Olympic Games will be held in the U.S. for a ninth time when Los Angeles hosts the 2028 Summer Olympics. U.S. athletes have won a total of 2,959 medals (1,173 gold) at the Olympic Games, the most of any country.[543][544][545]

In international competition, the U.S. men's national soccer team has qualified for eleven World Cups, while the women's national team has won the FIFA Women's World Cup and Olympic soccer tournament four times each.[546] The United States hosted the 1994 FIFA World Cup and will co-host, along with Canada and Mexico, the 2026 FIFA World Cup.[547] The 1999 FIFA Women's World Cup was also hosted by the United States. Its final match was watched by 90,185, setting the world record for most-attended women's sporting event.[548]

See also[]

Lua error: bad argument #2 to '' (unrecognized namespace name 'Portal').

  • Lists of U.S. state topics
  • Outline of the United States


<templatestyles src="Reflist/styles.css" />

  1. 30 of 50 states recognize only English as an official language. The state of Hawaii recognizes both Hawaiian and English as official languages, the state of Alaska officially recognizes 20 Alaska Native languages alongside English, and the state of South Dakota recognizes O'ceti Sakowin as an official language.
  2. English is the de facto language. For more information, see Languages of the United States.
  3. The historical and informal demonym Yankee has been applied to Americans, New Englanders, or northeasterners since the 18th century.
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 At 3,531,900 sq mi (9,147,590 km2), the United States is the third-largest country in the world by land area, behind Russia and China. By total area (land and water), it is the third-largest, behind Russia and Canada, if its coastal and territorial water areas are included. However, if only its internal waters are included (bays, sounds, rivers, lakes, and the Great Lakes), the U.S. is the fourth-largest, after Russia, Canada, and China.
    Coastal/territorial waters included: 3,796,742 sq mi (9,833,517 km2)[18]
    Only internal waters included: 3,696,100 sq mi (9,572,900 km2)[19]
  5. Excludes Puerto Rico and the other unincorporated islands because they are counted separately in U.S. census statistics.
  6. After adjustment for taxes and transfers
  7. See Time in the United States for details about laws governing time zones in the United States.
  8. See Date and time notation in the United States.
  9. A single jurisdiction, the U.S. Virgin Islands, uses left-hand traffic.
  10. The five major territories outside the union of states are American Samoa, Guam, the Northern Mariana Islands, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. The seven undisputed island areas without permanent populations are Baker Island, Howland Island, Jarvis Island, Johnston Atoll, Kingman Reef, Midway Atoll, and Palmyra Atoll. U.S. sovereignty over the unpopulated Bajo Nuevo Bank, Navassa Island, Serranilla Bank, and Wake Island is disputed.[17]
  11. The U.S. Census Bureau's 2023 estimate was 334,914,895 residents. All official population figures are for the 50 states and the District of Columbia; they exclude the five major U.S. territories and outlying islands. The Census Bureau also provides a continuously updated but unofficial population clock in addition to its decennial census and annual population estimates:
  12. New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Connecticut, Rhode Island, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia
  13. This figure, like most official data for the United States as a whole, excludes the five unincorporated territories (Puerto Rico, Guam, the U.S. Virgin Islands, American Samoa, and the Northern Mariana Islands) and minor island possessions.
  14. Inupiaq, Siberian Yupik, Central Alaskan Yup'ik, Alutiiq, Unanga (Aleut), Denaʼina, Deg Xinag, Holikachuk, Koyukon, Upper Kuskokwim, Gwichʼin, Tanana, Upper Tanana, Tanacross, Hän, Ahtna, Eyak, Tlingit, Haida, and Tsimshian
  15. Also known less formally as Obamacare


<templatestyles src="Reflist/styles.css" />

  1. Template:USC
  2. The Great Seal of the United States. U.S. Department of State, Bureau of Public Affairs (2003).
  3. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>"An Act To make The Star-Spangled Banner the national anthem of the United States of America". H.R. 14, Act of March 3, 1931. 71st United States Congress.
  4. 2020 Census Illuminates Racial and Ethnic Composition of the Country. United States Census.
  5. Race and Ethnicity in the United States: 2010 Census and 2020 Census. United States Census.
  6. A Breakdown of 2020 Census Demographic Data (August 13, 2021).
  7. 7.0 7.1 Staff (June 8, 2007). In Depth: Topics A to Z (Religion) (en).
  8. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>Compton's Pictured Encyclopedia and Fact-index: Ohio. 1963. p. 336.
  9. Areas of the 50 states and the District of Columbia but not Puerto Rico nor other island territories per State Area Measurements and Internal Point Coordinates. (August 2010). “reflect base feature updates made in the MAF/TIGER database through August, 2010.”
  10. The Water Area of Each State. United States Geological Survey (2018).
  11. Bureau, US Census. U.S. Population Trends Return to Pre-Pandemic Norms as More States Gain Population.
  12. U.S. Census Bureau Today Delivers State Population Totals for Congressional Apportionment. United States Census. The 2020 census is as of April 1, 2020.
  13. 13.0 13.1 13.2 13.3 13.4 13.5 13.6 World Economic Outlook Database, October 2023 Edition. (US). International Monetary Fund (October 10, 2023).
  14. Bureau, US Census. Income and Poverty in the United States: 2020.
  15. Human Development Report 2021/2022 (en). United Nations Development Programme (September 8, 2022).
  16. The Difference Between .us vs .com (January 3, 2022).
  17. U.S. State Department, Common Core Document to U.N. Committee on Human Rights, December 30, 2011, Item 22, 27, 80. And U.S. General Accounting Office Report, U.S. Insular Areas: application of the U.S. Constitution Archived November 3, 2013, at the Wayback Machine, November 1997, pp. 1, 6, 39n. Both viewed April 6, 2016.
  18. China.
  19. United States.
  20. DeLear, Byron (July 4, 2013) Who coined 'United States of America'? Mystery might have intriguing answer. Christian Science Monitor (Boston, MA).
  21. Fay, John (July 15, 2016) The forgotten Irishman who named the 'United States of America' "According to the NY Historical Society, Stephen Moylan was the man responsible for the earliest documented use of the phrase 'United States of America'. But who was Stephen Moylan?"
  22. ""To the inhabitants of Virginia", by A PLANTER. Dixon and Hunter's. April 6, 1776, Williamsburg, Virginia. The letter is also included in Peter Force's American Archives". 
  23. 23.0 23.1 Safire 2003, p. 199.
  24. Mostert 2005, p. 18.
  25. Davis, 1996, p. 7.
  26. "Cliff Palace" at Colorado Encyclopedia, accessed January 31, 2024
  27. Erlandson, Rick & Vellanoweth 2008, p. 19.
  28. Savage 2011, p. 55.
  29. Waters & Stafford 2007, pp. 1122–1126.
  30. Flannery 2015, pp. 173–185.
  31. Lockard 2010, p. 315.
  32. Smithsonian Institution—Handbook of North American Indians series: Handbook of North American Indians, Volume 15—Northeast. Bruce G. Trigger (volume editor). Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution. 1978 References to Indian burning for the Eastern Algonquians, Virginia Algonquians, Northern Iroquois, Huron, Mahican, and Delaware Tribes and peoples.
  33. Fagan 2016, p. 390.
  34. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>Snow, Dean R. (1994). The Iroquois. Blackwell Publishers, Ltd. ISBN 978-1-55786-938-8. Retrieved July 16, 2010.
  35. Thornton 1998, p. 34.
  36. 36.0 36.1 Perdue & Green 2005, p. 40.
  37. Haines, Haines & Steckel 2000, p. 12.
  38. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>Davis, Frederick T. (1932). "The Record of Ponce de Leon's Discovery of Florida, 1513". The QUARTERLY Periodical of THE FLORIDA HISTORICAL SOCIETY. XI (1): 5–6.
  39. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>Florida Center for Instructional Technology (2002). "Pedro Menendez de Aviles Claims Florida for Spain". A Short History of Florida. University of South Florida.
  40. Not So Fast, Jamestown: St. Augustine Was Here First (en) (February 28, 2015).
  41. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>Petto, Christine Marie (2007). When France Was King of Cartography: The Patronage and Production of Maps in Early Modern France. Lexington Books. p. 125. ISBN 978-0-7391-6247-7.
  42. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>Seelye, James E. Jr.; Selby, Shawn (2018). Shaping North America: From Exploration to the American Revolution [3 volumes]. ABC-CLIO. p. 344. ISBN 978-1-4408-3669-5.
  43. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>Bellah, Robert Neelly; Madsen, Richard; Sullivan, William M.; Swidler, Ann; Tipton, Steven M. (1985). Habits of the Heart: Individualism and Commitment in American Life. University of California Press. p. 220. ISBN 978-0-520-05388-5. OL 7708974M.
  44. Remini 2007, pp. 2–3
  45. Johnson 1997, pp. 26–30
  46. Ripper, 2008 p. 6
  47. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>Ehrenpreis, Jamie E.; Ehrenpreis, Eli D. (April 2022). "A Historical Perspective of Healthcare Disparity and Infectious Disease in the Native American Population". The American Journal of the Medical Sciences. 363 (4): 288–294. doi:10.1016/j.amjms.2022.01.005. ISSN 0002-9629. PMC 8785365. PMID 35085528.
  48. Joseph 2016, p. 590.
  49. Stannard, 1993 p. xii
  50. Ripper, 2008 p. 5
  51. Calloway, 1998, p. 55
  52. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>Thomas, Hugh (1997). The Slave Trade: The Story of the Atlantic Slave Trade: 1440–1870. Simon and Schuster. pp. 516. ISBN 0-684-83565-7.
  53. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>Bilhartz, Terry D.; Elliott, Alan C. (2007). Currents in American History: A Brief History of the United States. M.E. Sharpe. ISBN 978-0-7656-1817-7.
  54. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>Wood, Gordon S. (1998). The Creation of the American Republic, 1776–1787. UNC Press Books. p. 263. ISBN 978-0-8078-4723-7.
  55. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>Ratcliffe, Donald (2013). "The Right to Vote and the Rise of Democracy, 1787–1828". Journal of the Early Republic. 33 (2): 220. doi:10.1353/jer.2013.0033. S2CID 145135025.
  56. Walton, 2009, pp. 38–39
  57. Walton, 2009, p. 35
  58. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>Otis, James (1763). The Rights of the British Colonies Asserted and Proved. ISBN 978-0-665-52678-7.
  59. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>Foner, Eric (1998). The Story of American Freedom (1st ed.). W.W. Norton. pp. 4–5. ISBN 978-0-393-04665-6. story of American freedom.
  60. 60.0 60.1 <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>Fabian Young, Alfred; Nash, Gary B.; Raphael, Ray (2011). Revolutionary Founders: Rebels, Radicals, and Reformers in the Making of the Nation. Random House Digital. pp. 4–7. ISBN 978-0-307-27110-5.
  61. Yick Wo vs. Hopkins, 118 U.S. 356, 370
  62. Richard Buel, Securing the Revolution: Ideology in American Politics, 1789–1815 (1972)
  63. Becker et al (2002), ch 1
  64. Republicanism (19 June 2006).
  65. British-American Diplomacy: The Paris Peace Treaty of September 30, 1783. The Avalon Project at Yale Law School.
  66. Shōsuke Satō, History of the land question in the United States, Johns Hopkins University, (1886), p. 352
  67. Foner 2020, p. 524.
  68. OpenStax 2014, § 8.1.
  69. Foner 2020, pp. 538–540.
  70. Boyer, 2007, pp. 192–193
  71. OpenStax 2014, § 8.3.
  72. 72.0 72.1 <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>Carlisle, Rodney P.; Golson, J. Geoffrey (2007). Manifest destiny and the expansion of America. Turning Points in History Series. Santa Barbara, Calif.: ABC-CLIO. p. 238. ISBN 978-1-85109-834-7. OCLC 659807062.
  73. Louisiana Purchase. National Park Service.
  74. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>Wait, Eugene M. (1999). America and the War of 1812. Nova Publishers. p. 78. ISBN 978-1-56072-644-9.
  75. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>Klose, Nelson; Jones, Robert F. (1994). United States History to 1877. Barron's Educational Series. p. 150. ISBN 978-0-8120-1834-9.
  76. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>Hammond, John Craig (March 2019). "President, Planter, Politician: James Monroe, the Missouri Crisis, and the Politics of Slavery". Journal of American History. 105 (4): 843–867. doi:10.1093/jahist/jaz002.
  77. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>Frymer, Paul (2017). Building an American empire : the era of territorial and political expansion. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press. ISBN 978-1-4008-8535-0. OCLC 981954623.
  78. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>Calloway, Colin G. (2019). First peoples : a documentary survey of American Indian history (6th ed.). Boston: Bedford/St. Martin's, Macmillan Learning. ISBN 978-1-319-10491-7. OCLC 1035393060.
  79. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>Michno, Gregory (2003). Encyclopedia of Indian Wars: Western Battles and Skirmishes, 1850–1890. Mountain Press Publishing. ISBN 978-0-87842-468-9.
  80. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>Billington, Ray Allen; Ridge, Martin (2001). Westward Expansion: A History of the American Frontier. UNM Press. p. 22. ISBN 978-0-8263-1981-4.
  81. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>Morrison, Michael A. (April 28, 1997). Slavery and the American West: The Eclipse of Manifest Destiny and the Coming of the Civil War. University of North Carolina Press. pp. 13–21. ISBN 978-0-8078-4796-1.
  82. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>Kemp, Roger L. (2010). Documents of American Democracy: A Collection of Essential Works. McFarland. p. 180. ISBN 978-0-7864-4210-2. Retrieved October 25, 2015.
  83. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>McIlwraith, Thomas F.; Muller, Edward K. (2001). North America: The Historical Geography of a Changing Continent. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 61. ISBN 978-0-7425-0019-8. Retrieved October 25, 2015.
  84. Wolf, Jessica. Revealing the history of genocide against California's Native Americans (en).
  85. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>Madley, Benjamin (2016). An American Genocide: The United States and the California Indian Catastrophe, 1846-1873. Yale University Press. ISBN 9780300230697.
  86. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>Rawls, James J. (1999). A Golden State: Mining and Economic Development in Gold Rush California. University of California Press. p. 20. ISBN 978-0-520-21771-3.
  87. Walker Howe 2007, p. 52–54; Wright 2022.
  88. Walker Howe 2007, p. 52–54; Rodriguez 2015, p. XXXIV; Wright 2022.
  89. Walton, 2009, p. 43
  90. Gordon, 2004, pp. 27,29
  91. Walker Howe 2007, p. 478, 481–482, 587–588.
  92. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>Murray, Stuart (2004). Atlas of American Military History. Infobase Publishing. p. 76. ISBN 978-1-4381-3025-5. Retrieved October 25, 2015. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>Lewis, Harold T. (2001). Christian Social Witness. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 53. ISBN 978-1-56101-188-9.
  93. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>Woods, Michael E. (2012). "What Twenty-First-Century Historians Have Said about the Causes of Disunion: A Civil War Sesquicentennial Review of the Recent Literature". The Journal of American History. [Oxford University Press, Organization of American Historians]. 99 (2): 415–439. doi:10.1093/jahist/jas272. ISSN 0021-8723. JSTOR 44306803. Retrieved April 29, 2023.
  94. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>Silkenat, D. (2019). Raising the White Flag: How Surrender Defined the American Civil War. Civil War America. University of North Carolina Press. p. 25. ISBN 978-1-4696-4973-3. Retrieved April 29, 2023.
  95. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>Vinovskis, Maris (1990). Toward A Social History of the American Civil War: Exploratory Essays. Cambridge; New York: Cambridge University Press. p. 4. ISBN 978-0-521-39559-5.
  96. The Fight for Equal Rights: Black Soldiers in the Civil War. U.S. National Archives and Records Administration (August 15, 2016). “By the end of the Civil War, roughly 179,000 black men (10% of the Union Army) served as soldiers in the U.S. Army and another 19,000 served in the Navy.”
  97. Davis, Jefferson. A Short History of the Confederate States of America, 1890, 2010. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>ISBN 978-1-175-82358-8. Available free online as an ebook. Chapter LXXXVIII, "Re-establishment of the Union by force", p. 503. Retrieved March 14, 2012.
  98. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>Black, Jeremy (2011). Fighting for America: The Struggle for Mastery in North America, 1519–1871. Indiana University Press. p. 275. ISBN 978-0-253-35660-4.
  99. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>Price, Marie; Benton-Short, Lisa (2008). Migrants to the Metropolis: The Rise of Immigrant Gateway Cities. Syracuse University Press. p. 51. ISBN 978-0-8156-3186-6.
  100. Overview + History | Ellis Island (en) (March 4, 2020).
  101. U.S. Bureau of the Census, Historical Statistics of the United States (1976) series C89-C119, pp 105–9
  102. Stephan Thernstrom, ed., Harvard Encyclopedia of American Ethnic Groups (1980) covers the history of all the main groups
  103. The Great Migration (1910–1970). National Archives (May 20, 2021).
  104. Purchase of Alaska, 1867. U.S. Department of State.
  105. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>Woodward, C. Vann (1991). Reunion and Reaction: The Compromise of 1877 and the End of Reconstruction. United Kingdom: Oxford University Press.
  106. White Southern Responses to Black Emancipation. American Experience.
  107. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>Trelease, Allen W. (1979). White Terror: The Ku Klux Klan Conspiracy and Southern Reconstruction. New York: Harper & Row. ISBN 0-313-21168-X.
  108. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>Shearer Davis Bowman (1993). Masters and Lords: Mid-19th-Century U.S. Planters and Prussian Junkers. Oxford UP. p. 221. ISBN 978-0-19-536394-4.
  109. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>Ware, Leland (February 2021). "Plessy's Legacy: The Government's Role in the Development and Perpetuation of Segregated Neighborhoods". RSF: The Russell Sage Foundation Journal of the Social Sciences. 7 (1): 92–109. doi:10.7758/rsf.2021.7.1.06. S2CID 231929202.
  110. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>Hirschman, Charles; Mogford, Elizabeth (December 1, 2009). "Immigration and the American Industrial Revolution From 1880 to 1920". Social Science Research. 38 (4): 897–920. doi:10.1016/j.ssresearch.2009.04.001. ISSN 0049-089X. PMC 2760060. PMID 20160966.
  111. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>Carson, Thomas; Bonk, Mary (1999). "Industrial Revolution". Gale Encyclopedia of U.S. Economic History. Gale.
  112. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>Riggs, Thomas (2015). Gale Encyclopedia of U.S. Economic History Vol. 3 (2 ed.). Gale. p. 1179.
  113. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>Dole, Charles F. (1907). "The Ethics of Speculation". The Atlantic Monthly. C (December 1907): 812–818.
  114. The Pit Stop: The American Automotive Industry Is Packed With History (February 26, 2021).
  115. Tindall, George Brown and Shi, David E. (2012). America: A Narrative History (Brief Ninth Edition) (Vol. 2). W. W. Norton & Company. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>ISBN 978-0-393-91267-8 p. 589
  116. Zinn, 2005, pp. 321–357
  117. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>Fraser, Steve (2015). The Age of Acquiescence: The Life and Death of American Resistance to Organized Wealth and Power. Little, Brown and Company. p. 66. ISBN 978-0-316-18543-1.
  118. Aldrich, Mark. Safety First: Technology, Labor and Business in the Building of Work Safety, 1870-1939. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1997. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>ISBN 0-8018-5405-9
  119. Progressive Era to New Era, 1900-1929 | U.S. History Primary Source Timeline | Classroom Materials at the Library of Congress | Library of Congress.
  120. The Spanish–American War, 1898. U.S. Department of State.
  121. Ryden, George Herbert. The Foreign Policy of the United States in Relation to Samoa. New York: Octagon Books, 1975.
  122. Virgin Islands History.
  123. McDuffie, Jerome; Piggrem, Gary Wayne; Woodworth, Steven E. (2005). U.S. History Super Review. Piscataway, NJ: Research & Education Association. p. 418. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>ISBN 978-0-7386-0070-3.
  124. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>Larson, Elizabeth C.; Meltvedt, Kristi R. (2021). "Women's suffrage: fact sheet". CRS Reports (Library of Congress. Congressional Research Service). Report / Congressional Research Service. Retrieved August 9, 2023.
  125. Winchester 2013, pp. 410–411.
  126. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>Axinn, June; Stern, Mark J. (2007). Social Welfare: A History of the American Response to Need (7th ed.). Boston: Allyn & Bacon. ISBN 978-0-205-52215-6.
  127. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>James Noble Gregory (1991). American Exodus: The Dust Bowl Migration and Okie Culture in California. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-507136-8. Retrieved October 25, 2015. Mass Exodus From the Plains. WGBH Educational Foundation (2013). The Migrant Experience. Library of Congress (April 6, 1997). <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>Stein, Walter J. (1973). California and the Dust Bowl Migration. Greenwood Press. ISBN 978-0-8371-6267-6. Retrieved October 25, 2015.
  128. The official WRA record from 1946 states that it was 120,000 people. See <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>War Relocation Authority (1946). The Evacuated People: A Quantitative Study. p. 8. This number does not include people held in other camps such as those run by the DoJ or U.S. Army. Other sources may give numbers slightly more or less than 120,000.
  129. Pearl Harbor and America's Entry into World War II: A Documentary History. World War II Internment in Hawaii.
  130. "Why did Japan surrender in World War II?". (in en) 
  131. Pacific War Research Society (2006). Japan's Longest Day. New York: Oxford University Press. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>ISBN 978-4-7700-2887-7.
  132. Hoopes & Brinkley 1997, p. 100.
  133. Gaddis 1972, p. 25.
  134. Kennedy, Paul (1989). The Rise and Fall of the Great Powers. New York: Vintage. p. 358. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>ISBN 978-0-679-72019-5
  135. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>Sempa, Francis (July 12, 2017). Geopolitics: From the Cold War to the 21st Century. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-351-51768-3.
  136. Blakemore, Erin (March 22, 2019). What was the Cold War? (en).
  137. Mark Kramer, "The Soviet Bloc and the Cold War in Europe," in <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>Larresm, Klaus, ed. (2014). A Companion to Europe Since 1945. Wiley. p. 79. ISBN 978-1-118-89024-0.
  138. Blakeley, 2009, p. 92
  139. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>Collins, Michael (1988). Liftoff: The Story of America's Adventure in Space. New York: Grove Press. ISBN 978-0-8021-1011-4.
  140. Winchester 2013, pp. 305–308.
  141. The Civil Rights Movement.
  142. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>Brinkley, Alan (January 24, 1991). "Great Society". In Eric Foner; John Arthur Garraty (eds.). The Reader's Companion to American History. Houghton Mifflin Books. p. 472. ISBN 0-395-51372-3.
  143. Svetlana Ter-Grigoryan (February 12, 2022). The Sexual Revolution Origins and Impact.
  144. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>Levy, Daniel (January 19, 2018). "Behind the Protests Against the Vietnam War in 1968". Time. Retrieved May 5, 2021.
  145. Playboy: American Magazine (August 25, 2022). “...the so-called sexual revolution in the United States in the 1960s, marked by greatly more permissive attitudes toward sexual interest and activity than had been prevalent in earlier generations.”
  146. Women in the Labor Force: A Databook. U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (2013).
  147. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>Gaĭdar, E.T. (2007). [[[:Template:GBUrl]] Collapse of an Empire: Lessons for Modern Russia]. Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution Press. pp. 190–205. ISBN 978-0-8157-3114-6. {{cite book}}: Check |url= value (help)
  148. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>Howell, Buddy Wayne (2006). The Rhetoric of Presidential Summit Diplomacy: Ronald Reagan and the U.S.-Soviet Summits, 1985–1988. Texas A&M University. p. 352. ISBN 978-0-549-41658-6.
  149. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>Kissinger, Henry (2011). Diplomacy. Simon & Schuster. pp. 781–784. ISBN 978-1-4391-2631-8. Retrieved October 25, 2015. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>Mann, James (2009). The Rebellion of Ronald Reagan: A History of the End of the Cold War. Penguin. p. 432. ISBN 978-1-4406-8639-9.
  150. Hayes, 2009
  151. ((CFI Team)). NASDAQ (en-US).
  152. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>Holsti, Ole R. (November 7, 2011). "The United States and Iraq before the Iraq War". American Public Opinion on the Iraq War. University of Michigan Press. p. 20. ISBN 978-0-472-03480-2.
  153. Walsh, Kenneth T.. "The 'War on Terror' Is Critical to President George W. Bush's Legacy", December 9, 2008.  <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>Atkins, Stephen E. (2011). The 9/11 Encyclopedia: Second Edition. ABC-CLIO. p. 872. ISBN 978-1-59884-921-9. Retrieved October 25, 2015.
  154. Wong, Edward. "Overview: The Iraq War", February 15, 2008.  <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>Johnson, James Turner (2005). The War to Oust Saddam Hussein: Just War and the New Face of Conflict. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 159. ISBN 978-0-7425-4956-2. Retrieved October 25, 2015. Durando, Jessica. "Timeline: Key moments in the Iraq War", December 21, 2011. 
  155. "Worst Crisis Since '30s, With No End Yet in Sight", The Wall Street Journal, September 18, 2008. 
  156. Hamid, Shadi (2022-01-08). The Forever Culture War (en).
  157. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>Duignan, Brian (August 4, 2021). "January 6 U.S. Capitol attack". Encyclopædia Britannica. Archived from the original on January 17, 2023. Retrieved September 22, 2021. Because its object was to prevent a legitimate president-elect from assuming office, the attack was widely regarded as an insurrection or attempted coup d'état.
  158. "77 Days: Trump's Campaign to Subvert the Election", The New York Times, 31 January 2021. 
  159. 159.0 159.1 159.2 United States. Central Intelligence Agency (January 3, 2018).
  160. Area. Central Intelligence Agency.
  161. Field Listing: Area. The World Factbook.
  162. State Area Measurements and Internal Point Coordinates—Geography—U.S. Census Bureau. U.S. Department of Commerce.
  163. Geographic Regions of Georgia. Digital Library of Georgia.
  164. 164.0 164.1 Lew, Alan. PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY OF THE US. North Arizona University.
  165. Harms, Nicole. Facts About the Rocky Mountain Range. USA Today.
  166. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>Tinkham, Ernest R. (March 1944). "Biological, Taxonomic and Faunistic Studies on the Shield-Back Katydids of the North American Deserts". The American Midland Naturalist. The University of Notre Dame. 31 (2): 257–328. doi:10.2307/2421073. JSTOR 2421073.
  167. Mount Whitney, California. Peakbagger.
  168. Find Distance and Azimuths Between 2 Sets of Coordinates (Badwater 36-15-01-N, 116-49-33-W and Mount Whitney 36-34-43-N, 118-17-31-W). Federal Communications Commission.
  169. Poppick, Laura (August 28, 2013). US Tallest Mountain's Surprising Location Explained. LiveScience.
  170. O'Hanlon, Larry (March 14, 2005). America's Explosive Park. Discovery Channel.
  171. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>World Food and Agriculture – Statistical Yearbook 2023. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. 2023. doi:10.4060/cc8166en. ISBN 978-92-5-138262-2. Retrieved December 13, 2023.
  172. Boyden, Jennifer. Climate Regions of the United States. USA Today.
  173. World Map of Köppen–Geiger Climate Classification.
  174. Perkins, Sid. "Tornado Alley, USA", Science News, May 11, 2002. 
  175. Rice, Doyle. USA has the world's most extreme weather (en).
  176. US EPA, OAR (June 27, 2016). Climate Change Indicators: Weather and Climate (en).
  177. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>McDougall, Len (2004). The Encyclopedia of Tracks and Scats: A Comprehensive Guide to the Trackable Animals of the United States and Canada. Lyons Press. p. 325. ISBN 978-1-59228-070-4.
  178. Morin, Nancy. Vascular Plants of the United States. National Biological Service.
  179. Number of Native Species in United States. Current Results Nexus.
  180. Numbers of Insects (Species and Individuals). Smithsonian Institution.
  181. National Park FAQ. National Park Service.
  182. "Giving Reins to the States Over Drilling", August 23, 2012. 
  183. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>Vincent, Carol H.; Hanson, Laura A.; Argueta, Carla N. (March 3, 2017). Federal Land Ownership: Overview and Data (Report). Congressional Research Service. p. 2. Retrieved June 18, 2020.
  184. Federal Land Ownership: Overview and Data. Congressional Research Service.
  185. Chapter 6: Federal Programs to Promote Resource Use, Extraction, and Development. U.S. Department of the Interior.
  186. The National Atlas of the United States of America (January 14, 2013). Forest Resources of the United States.
  187. Land Use Changes Involving Forestry in the United States: 1952 to 1997, With Projections to 2050 (2003).
  188. Daynes & Sussman, 2010, pp. 3, 72, 74–76, 78
  189. Hays, Samuel P. (2000). A History of Environmental Politics since 1945.
  190. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>Collin, Robert W. (2006). The Environmental Protection Agency: Cleaning Up America's Act. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 1. ISBN 978-0-313-33341-5. Retrieved October 25, 2015.
  191. Turner, James Morton (2012). The Promise of Wilderness, pp. 29–32
  192. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>Endangered species Fish and Wildlife Service. General Accounting Office, Diane Publishing. 2003. pp. 1–3, 42. ISBN 978-1-4289-3997-4. Retrieved October 25, 2015.
  193. Environmental Performance Index | Environmental Performance Index.
  194. United States of America. United Nations.
  195. Common Core Document of the United States of America. U.S. Department of State (December 30, 2011).
  196. Onuf 2010, p. xvii.
  197. Desjardins, Jeff (August 8, 2019). "Mapped: The world's oldest democracies". World Economic Forum.
  198. Scheb, John M.; Scheb, John M. II (2002). An Introduction to the American Legal System. Florence, KY: Delmar, p. 6. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>ISBN 978-0-7668-2759-2.
  199. Feldstein, Fabozzi, 2011, p. 9
  200. Killian, Johnny H. Ed. Constitution of the United States. The Office of the Secretary of the Senate.
  201. The Legislative Branch. United States Diplomatic Mission to Germany.
  202. The Process for impeachment. ThinkQuest.
  203. The Senate and the House of Representatives: lesson overview (article) (en).
  204. The Executive Branch.
  205. Interpretation: Article II, Section 1, Clauses 2 and 3 | Constitution Center (en).
  206. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>Hall, Kermit L.; McGuire, Kevin T. (2005). Institutions of American Democracy: The Judicial Branch. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-988374-5.
    <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (2013). Learn about the United States: Quick Civics Lessons for the Naturalization Test. Government Printing Office. p. 4. ISBN 978-0-16-091708-0.
    <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>Giddens-White, Bryon (2005). The Supreme Court and the Judicial Branch. Heinemann Library. ISBN 978-1-4034-6608-2.
    <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>Zelden, Charles L. (2007). The Judicial Branch of Federal Government: People, Process, and Politics. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 978-1-85109-702-9. Retrieved October 25, 2015.
    Federal Courts. United States Courts.
  207. Cossack, Roger. "Beyond politics: Why Supreme Court justices are appointed for life", CNN, July 13, 2000. 
  208. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>Sundquist, James L. (1997). "The U.S. Presidential System as a Model for the World". In Baaklini, Abdo I.; Desfosses, Helen (eds.). Designs for Democratic Stability: Studies in Viable Constitutionalism. Routledge. pp. 53–72. ISBN 0765600528.
  209. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>Hofstadter, Richard (1969). The Idea of a Party System : The Rise of Legitimate Opposition in the United States, 1780-1840. University of California Press. p. iv. ISBN 9780520013896. Retrieved October 5, 2022.
  210. Matthew Levendusky, The Partisan Sort: How Liberals Became Democrats and Conservatives Became Republicans (U Chicago Press, 2009)
  211. Rights, Powers, Dual Sovereignty, and Federalism (October 2011).
  212. Template:Usc(a)(36) and Template:Usc(a)(38) U.S. Federal Code, Immigration and Nationality Act. Template:USC
  213. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>Feldstein, Martin (March 2017). "Why is Growth Better in the United States Than in Other Industrial Countries?". National Bureau of Economic Research. Cambridge, MA. doi:10.3386/w23221.
  214. Current Members. United Nations Security Council.
  215. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>"United Nations Headquarters Agreement". The American Journal of International Law. Cambridge University Press. 42 (2): 445–447. April 1948. doi:10.2307/2193692. JSTOR 2193692. S2CID 246008694.
  216. Where is the G7 Headed?. Council on Foreign Relations (June 28, 2022).
  217. The United States and G20: Building a More Peaceful, Stable, and Prosperous World Together. United States Department of State (July 6, 2022).
  218. Our global reach. OECD.
  219. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>Fialho, Livia Pontes; Wallin, Matthew (August 1, 2013). Reaching for an Audience: U.S. Public Diplomacy Towards Iran (Report). American Security Project. JSTOR resrep06070.
  220. "Which are the countries still talking to North Korea?", December 19, 2017. 
  221. Ferraro, Matthew F.. "The Case for Stronger Bhutanese-American Ties", December 22, 2014. 
  222. US will continue to strengthen 'unofficial ties' with Taiwan, says Harris (en) (September 28, 2022).
  223. Ruwitch, John. "Formal Ties With U.S.? Not For Now, Says Taiwan Foreign Minister", September 22, 2020. 
  224. "Japan will turn to Quad in 'nealsow Cold War': Defense Ministry think tank", Nikkei Asia, 27 March 2021. 
  225. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>Dumbrell, John; Schäfer, Axel (2009). America's 'Special Relationships': Foreign and Domestic Aspects of the Politics of Alliance. Taylor & Francis. p. 45. ISBN 978-0-203-87270-3. Retrieved October 25, 2015.
  226. Canada–U.S. Relations. Congressional Research Service (September 3, 2010).
  227. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>Vaughn, Bruce (August 8, 2008). Australia: Background and U.S. Relations. Congressional Research Service. OCLC 70208969.
  228. Vaughn, Bruce (May 27, 2011). New Zealand: Background and Bilateral Relations with the United States. Congressional Research Service.
  229. Lum, Thomas (January 3, 2011). The Republic of the Philippines and U.S. Interests. Congressional Research Service.
  230. Chanlett-Avery, Emma (June 8, 2011). Japan-U.S. Relations: Issues for Congress. Congressional Research Service.
  231. U.S.–South Korea Relations: Issues for Congress. Congressional Research Service (July 8, 2011).
  232. Zanotti, Jim (July 31, 2014). Israel: Background and U.S. Relations. Congressional Research Service.
  233. U.S. Relations With Poland (January 20, 2021).
  234. "The Untapped Potential of the US-Colombia Partnership", September 26, 2019. (in en) 
  235. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>Zelden, Charles L. (2007). The Judicial Branch of Federal Government: People, Process, and Politics. ABC-CLIO. p. 217. ISBN 978-1-85109-702-9. Retrieved October 25, 2015.
    <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>Yager, Loren; Friberg, Emil; Holen, Leslie (2003). Foreign Relations: Migration from Micronesian Nations Has Had Significant Impact on Guam, Hawaii, and the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands. Diane Publishing. p. 7. ISBN 978-0-7567-3394-0.
  237. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>Meidan, Michal (July 1, 2019). US-China: The Great Decoupling (Report). Oxford Institute for Energy Studies. JSTOR resrep33982.
  238. Bala, Sumathi (March 28, 2023). U.S.-China relations are going downhill with 'no trust' on either side, Stephen Roach says (en).
  239. "Thirty Years of U.S. Policy Toward Russia: Can the Vicious Circle Be Broken?", June 20, 2019. 
  240. Macias, Amanda (June 17, 2022). Here's a look at the $5.6 billion in firepower the U.S. has committed to Ukraine in its fight against Russia (en).
  241. Lindsay, James M. (August 4, 2021). Happy 231st Birthday to the United States Coast Guard!. Council on Foreign Relations. “During peacetime it is part of the Department of Homeland Security. During wartime, or when the president or Congress so direct, it becomes part of the Department of Defense and is included in the Department of the Navy.”
  242. Trends in World Military Expenditure, 2022. Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (April 2023).
  243. Data for all countries from 1988–2020 in constant (2019) USD (pdf). SIPRI.
  244. Reichmann, Kelsey (June 16, 2019). Here's how many nuclear warheads exist, and which countries own them. Sightline Media Group.
  245. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>Hackett, James (2023). The military balance. 2023. London: Routledge. ISBN 978-1032508955.
  246. Harris, Johnny (May 18, 2015). Why does the US have 800 military bases around the world?.
  247. Active Duty Military Personnel Strengths by Regional Area and by Country (309A). Department of Defense (March 31, 2010).
  248. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>Banks, Duren; Hendrix, Joshua; Hickman, Mathhew (October 4, 2016). "National Sources of Law Enforcement Employment Data" (PDF). U.S. Department of Justice: 1.
  249. U.S. Federal Law Enforcement Agencies, Who Governs & What They Do.
  250. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>Manweller, Mathew (2006). "Chapter 2, The Roles, Functions, and Powers of State Courts". In Hogan, Sean O. (ed.). The Judicial Branch of State Government: People, Process, and Politics. Santa Barbara, California: ABC-Clio. pp. 37–96. ISBN 978-1-85109-751-7. Retrieved October 5, 2020.
  251. Introduction To The Federal Court System. United States Attorney. United States Department of Justice (November 7, 2014).
  252. United States of America. World Prison Brief.
  253. Highest to Lowest. World Prison Brief (WPB). Use the dropdown menu to choose lists of countries by region or the whole world. Use the menu to select highest-to-lowest lists of prison population totals, prison population rates, percentage of pre-trial detainees/remand prisoners, percentage of female prisoners, percentage of foreign prisoners, and occupancy rate. Column headings in WPB tables can be clicked to reorder columns lowest to highest, or alphabetically. For detailed information for each country click on any country name in lists. See the WPB main data page and click on the map links or the sidebar links to get to the region and country desired.
  254. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>Sawyer, Wendy; Wagner, Peter (March 14, 2023). Mass Incarceration: The Whole Pie 2023 (Report). Prison Policy Initiative. Retrieved May 13, 2023.
  255. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>Grinshteyn, Erin; Hemenway, David (March 2016). "Violent Death Rates: The US Compared with Other High-income OECD Countries, 2010". The American Journal of Medicine. 129 (3): 226–273. doi:10.1016/j.amjmed.2015.10.025. PMID 26551975. Retrieved June 18, 2017.
  256. 256.0 256.1 The Implementation of Monetary Policy – The Federal Reserve in the International Sphere.
  257. The New York Times:Microsoft Tops Apple to Become Most Valuable Public Company (January 12, 2024).
  258. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>Fordham, Benjamin (October 2017). "Protectionist Empire: Trade, Tariffs, and United States Foreign Policy, 1890–1914". Studies in American Political Development. 31 (2): 170–192. doi:10.1017/s0898588x17000116. ISSN 0898-588X. S2CID 148917255.
  259. Report for Selected Countries and Subjects.
  260. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>Hagopian, Kip; Ohanian, Lee (August 1, 2012). "The Mismeasure of Inequality". Policy Review (174). Archived from the original on December 3, 2013. Retrieved January 23, 2020.
  261. Gross Domestic Product, Fourth Quarter and Year 2022 (Third Estimate), GDP by Industry, and Corporate Profits. U.S. Department of Commerce.
  262. Global 500 (en).
  263. Benjamin J. Cohen, The Future of Money, Princeton University Press, 2006, <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>ISBN 0691116660; cf. "the dollar is the de facto currency in Cambodia", Charles Agar, Frommer's Vietnam, 2006, <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>ISBN 0471798169, p. 17
  264. US GDP Growth Rate by Year. US Bureau of Economic Analysis (March 31, 2014).
  265. United States free trade agreements. Office of the United States Trade Representative.
  266. Rankings: Global Competitiveness Report 2013–2014. World Economic Forum.
  267. USA Economy in Brief. U.S. Dept. of State, International Information Programs.
  268. Manufacturing, Value Added (Current US$). World Bank.
  269. Kat Tretina and Benjamin Curry (April 9, 2021). NYSE: What Is The New York Stock Exchange. Forbes.
  270. "New York widens lead over London in top finance centres index", March 24, 2022. Template:Title missing
  271. The Global Financial Centres Index 32. Long Finance (September 22, 2022).
  272. Iman Ghosh (September 24, 2020). This 3D map shows the U.S. cities with the highest economic output. World Economic Forum. “The New York metro area dwarfs all other cities for economic output by a large margin.”
  273. Monthly Reports – World Federation of Exchanges. WFE.
  274. Table A – Market Capitalization of the World's Top Stock Exchanges (As at end of June 2012). Securities and Exchange Commission (China).
  275. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>WIPO (2022). Global Innovation Index 2022, 15th Edition. World Intellectual Property Organization. doi:10.34667/tind.46596. ISBN 9789280534320. Retrieved February 25, 2023.
  276. United States reference resource. The World Factbook Central Intelligence Agency.
  277. Wright, Gavin, and Jesse Czelusta, "Resource-Based Growth Past and Present", in Natural Resources: Neither Curse Nor Destiny, ed. Daniel Lederman and William Maloney (World Bank, 2007), p. 185. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>ISBN 0821365452.
  278. Top Trading Partners – October 2022. U.S. Census Bureau (October 2022).
  279. World Trade Statistical Review 2019. World Trade Organization.
  280. Service exports (BoP, current US$).
  281. Income. Better Life Index. OECD. “In the United States, the average household net adjusted disposable income per capita is USD 45 284 a year, much higher than the OECD average of USD 33 604 and the highest figure in the OECD.”
  282. Median Income by Country 2023 (en-US).
  283. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>"Society at a Glance 2014". Society at a Glance 2014: OECD Social Indicators. OECD Publishing. March 18, 2014. doi:10.1787/soc_glance-2014-en. ISBN 9789264200722. Retrieved May 29, 2014.
  284. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>Piketty, Thomas (2014). Capital in the Twenty-First Century. Belknap Press. p. 257. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>ISBN 978-0-674-43000-6
  285. "Income inequality in America is the highest it's been since Census Bureau started tracking it, data shows". 
  286. Long, Heather. "U.S. middle-class incomes reached highest-ever level in 2016, Census Bureau says", September 12, 2017. 
  287. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>Smeeding, T.M. (2005). "Public Policy: Economic Inequality and Poverty: The United States in Comparative Perspective". Social Science Quarterly. 86: 955–983. doi:10.1111/j.0038-4941.2005.00331.x. S2CID 154642286.
  288. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>Hopkin, Jonathan (2020). "American Nightmare: How Neoliberalism Broke US Democracy". Anti-System Politics: The Crisis of Market Liberalism in Rich Democracies. Oxford University Press. pp. 87–88. doi:10.1093/oso/9780190699765.003.0004. ISBN 978-0190699765.
  289. Here's How Many Billionaires And Millionaires Live In The U.S. – Forbes Advisor.
  290. The 2022 Annual Homelessness Assessment Report (AHAR) to Congress. The U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (December 2022).
  291. USDA ERS – Key Statistics & Graphics.
  292. Facts About Child Hunger in America | Feeding America.
  293. Bureau, US Census. National Poverty in America Awareness Month: January 2023.
  294. Tackling income inequality The role of taxes and transfers. OECD (2012).
  295. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>Rank, Mark Robert (2023). The Poverty Paradox: Understanding Economic Hardship Amid American Prosperity. Oxford University Press. pp. 116–117. ISBN 978-0190212636.
  296. Min, Sarah. "1 in 4 workers in U.S. don't get any paid vacation time or holidays", CBS News, May 24, 2019. “The United States is the only advanced economy that does not federally mandate any paid vacation days or holidays.” 
  297. Bernard, Tara Siegel. "In Paid Family Leave, U.S. Trails Most of the Globe", February 22, 2013. 
  298. Van Dam, Andrew. "Is it great to be a worker in the U.S.? Not compared with the rest of the developed world.", July 4, 2018. 
  299. Template:Hounshell1984
  300. Global AI Vibrancy Tool. Stanford University (2021).
  301. SpaceX Starship problems likely to delay Artemis 3 moon mission to 2026, NASA says (en) (2023-06-09).
  302. SJR – International Science Ranking (en-uk).
  303. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>World Intellectual Property Organization. (2021). World Intellectual Property Indicators 2021. World IP Indicators (WIPI). World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO). doi:10.34667/tind.44461. ISBN 9789280533293. Retrieved April 27, 2022.
  304. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>WIPO (December 28, 2023). Global Innovation Index 2023, 15th Edition. World Intellectual Property Organization. doi:10.34667/tind.46596. ISBN 9789280534320. Retrieved October 17, 2023.
  305. U.S. energy facts explained - consumption and production - U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA).
  306. Energy Flow Charts: Charting the Complex Relationships among Energy, Water, and Carbon. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (March 2022).
  307. "What is the United States' share of world energy consumption?", U.S. Energy Information Administration, November 5, 2021. 
  308. EIA – Petroleum Basic Data. (October 28, 2022).
  309. US EPA, OAR (February 8, 2017). Inventory of U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks (en).
  310. Hunter, Marnie (April 11, 2022). This US airport has reclaimed its title as the world's busiest.
  311. Cars still dominate the American commute (en) (May 19, 2022).
  312. Humes, Edward (April 12, 2016). The Absurd Primacy of the Automobile in American Life (en).
  313. Roadways – The World Factbook.
  314. Public Road and Street Mileage in the United States by Type of Surface.
  315. "SOME MILESTONES OF THE AUTO AGE", The New York Times, January 26, 1986. (in en-US) 
  316. "1926 Ford Model T Sports Touring Car", September 1, 2002. (in en-US) 
  317. 2022 production statistics.
  318. Klebnikov, Sergei. Tesla Is Now The World's Most Valuable Car Company With A $208 Billion Valuation (en).
  319. Bunkley, Nick. "Toyota Ahead of G.M. in 2008 Sales", The New York Times, January 21, 2009. (in en-US) 
  320. "China overtakes US in car sales", January 8, 2010. 
  321. Fact #962: Vehicles per Capita: Other Regions/Countries Compared to the United States (en) (January 30, 2017).
  322. Vehicle Statistics: Cars Per Capita. Capitol Tires (August 2017).
  323. Railways – The World Factbook. The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency.
  324. Seasonally Adjusted Transportation Data. Bureau of Transportation Statistics (2021).
  325. Fitzsimmons, Emma G.. "Amtrak at a Junction: Invest in Improvements, or Risk Worsening Problems", April 24, 2017. 
  326. Edwards, Chris (July 12, 2020). Privatization (en). Cato Institute.
  327. Scheduled Passengers Carried. International Air Transport Association (IATA) (2011).
  328. 2021 Airport Traffic Report. Port Authority of New York and New Jersey (April 2022).
  329. Preliminary World Airport Traffic and Rankings 2013—High Growth Dubai Moves Up to 7th Busiest Airport (March 31, 2014).
  330. Number of U.S. Airports. Bureau of Transportation Statistics.
  331. The Top 50 Container Ports. World Shipping Council.
  332. Waterways – The World Factbook. The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency.
  333. Census Bureau's 2020 Population Count. United States Census.
  334. 334.0 334.1 The World Factbook: United States. Central Intelligence Agency.
  335. Population Clock.
  336. Table MS-1. Marital Status of the Population 15 Years Old and Over, by Sex, Race and Hispanic Origin: 1950 to Present. U.S. Census Bureau.
  337. McPhillips, Deidre (January 31, 2023). Covid-19 'baby bump' brought an increased US fertility rate in 2021 – but also record high preterm births (en).
  338. U.S. has world's highest rate of children living in single-parent households (en).
  339. 339.0 339.1 339.2 Ancestry 2000. U.S. Census Bureau (June 2004).
  340. The Chance That Two People Chosen at Random Are of Different Race or Ethnicity Groups Has Increased Since 2010.
  341. Table 52. Population by Selected Ancestry Group and Region: 2009. U.S. Census Bureau (2009).
  342. Kaur, Harmeet (May 20, 2018). FYI: English isn't the official language of the United States (en).
  343. "States Where English Is the Official Language", August 12, 2014. 
  344. The Constitution of the State of Hawaii, Article XV, Section 4. Hawaii Legislative Reference Bureau (November 7, 1978).
  345. "Alaska OKs Bill Making Native Languages Official", April 21, 2014. 
  346. South Dakota recognizes official indigenous language. Argus Leader.
  347. Translation in Puerto Rico.
  348. Bureau, U.S. Census. American FactFinder—Results.
  349. ((United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division)) (August 2019). International Migrant Stock 2019 Documentation.
  350. UN Migrant Stock Total 2019.
  351. "Frequently Requested Statistics on Immigrants and Immigration in the United States", Migration Policy Institute, March 14, 2019. 
  352. Key findings about U.S. immigrants. Pew Research Center (June 17, 2019).
  353. Immigrants in the United States (September 21, 2021).
  354. Jens Manuel Krogstad (October 7, 2019). Key facts about refugees to the U.S.. Pew Research Center.
  355. Donadio, Rachel (November 22, 2021). Why Is France So Afraid of God? (en).
  356. First Amendment. Constitution Annotated. United States Congress.
  357. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>Alesina, Alberto; et al. (2003). "Fractionalization" (PDF). Journal of Economic Growth. 8 (2): 155–194. doi:10.1023/a:1024471506938. S2CID 260685524. Archived from the original (PDF) on August 31, 2012. Retrieved September 13, 2012.
  358. Fahmy, Dalia (July 31, 2018). Americans are far more religious than adults in other wealthy nations. Pew Research Center.
  359. ANALYSIS (December 19, 2011). Global Christianity.
  360. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>DellaPergola, Sergio (2022). "World Jewish Population, 2020". American Jewish Year Book 2020. Vol. 120. pp. 273–370. doi:10.1007/978-3-030-78706-6_7. ISBN 978-3-030-78705-9. S2CID 245642037. Archived from the original on May 20, 2022. Retrieved May 20, 2022.
  361. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>Sewell, Elizabeth (2010). "Religious Liberty and Religious Minorities in the United States". In Davis, Derek (ed.). The Oxford Handbook of Church and State in the United States. University of Oxford. pp. 249–275. ISBN 9780199892228.
  362. 362.0 362.1 Williams, Daniel (March 1, 2023). 'Christian America' Isn't Dying. It's Dividing. (en).
  363. On Ceremonial Occasions, May the Government Invoke a Deity? (en-US) (August 28, 2008).
  364. Kallo, Becka (2023-12-07). Spirituality Among Americans (en-US).
  365. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>Froese, Paul; Uecker, Jeremy E. (September 2022). "Prayer in America: A Detailed Analysis of the Various Dimensions of Prayer". Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion. 61 (3–4): 663–689. doi:10.1111/jssr.12810. ISSN 0021-8294. S2CID 253439298.
  366. Howe 2008, pp. 727–728.
  367. Mormon Population by State (June 2023).
  368. United States—Urban/Rural and Inside/Outside Metropolitan Area. U.S. Census Bureau.
  369. Bureau, US Census. City and Town Population Totals: 2020-2022.
  370. Counties in South and West Lead Nation in Population Growth (en) (April 18, 2019).
  371. About Us.
  372. Texas Medical Center, largest medical complex in the world, reaches 98 percent ICU capacity (August 19, 2020).
  373. TMC Facts & Figures.
  374. McPhillips, Deidre (2023-11-29). US life expectancy rebounded in 2022 but not back to pre-pandemic levels (en).
  375. Achenbach, Joel. "'There's something terribly wrong': Americans are dying young at alarming rates", November 26, 2019. 
  376. New International Report on Health Care: U.S. Suicide Rate Highest Among Wealthy Nations | Commonwealth Fund (en) (January 30, 2020).
  377. Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity Among Adults: United States, 2003–2004. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics.
  378. The U.S. Healthcare System: The Best in the World or Just the Most Expensive?. University of Maine (2001).
  379. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>Vladeck, Bruce (January 2003). "Universal Health Insurance in the United States: Reflections on the Past, the Present, and the Future". American Journal of Public Health. 93 (1): 16–19. doi:10.2105/ajph.93.1.16. PMC 1447684. PMID 12511377.
  380. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>Oberlander, Jonathan (June 1, 2010). "Long Time Coming: Why Health Reform Finally Passed". Health Affairs. 29 (6): 1112–1116. doi:10.1377/hlthaff.2010.0447. ISSN 0278-2715. PMID 20530339.
  381. Ages for Compulsory School Attendance .... U.S. Dept. of Education, National Center for Education Statistics.
  382. Rushe, Dominic. "The US spends more on education than other countries. Why is it falling behind?", The Guardian, September 7, 2018. (in en-GB) 
  383. Fast Facts: Expenditures (EN) (April 2020).
  384. Educational Attainment in the United States: 2003. U.S. Census Bureau.
  385. For more detail on U.S. literacy, see A First Look at the Literacy of America's Adults in the 21st century, U.S. Department of Education (2003).
  386. All Nobel Prizes.
  387. 2022–2023 Best Global Universities Rankings.
  388. Fink, Jenni (October 22, 2019). U.S. Schools Take 8 of 10 Top Spots on U.S. News' Best Global Universities (en).
  389. Best Countries for Education: North American and European countries are seen as offering the best opportunities for education. (April 19, 2023).
  390. Everything You Need to Know About Community Colleges: FAQ. U.S. News & World Report (July 14, 2020).
  391. "U.S. education spending tops global list, study shows", CBS, June 25, 2013. 
  392. The Biden administration cancelled $9.5B in student loan debt. Here's who it affects. (en).
  393. Hess, Abigail Johnson. "U.S. student debt has increased by more than 100% over the past 10 years", CNBC, December 22, 2020. 
  394. "This is how student loan debt became a $1.7 trillion crisis", CNBC, May 6, 2022. 
  395. Statue of Liberty. UNESCO.
  396. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>Huntington, Samuel P. (2004). "Chapters 2–4". Who are We?: The Challenges to America's National Identity. Simon & Schuster. ISBN 978-0-684-87053-3. Retrieved October 25, 2015.: see American Creed, written by William Tyler Page and adopted by Congress in 1918.
  397. Hoeveler, J. David, Creating the American Mind: Intellect and Politics in the Colonial Colleges, Rowman & Littlefield, <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>ISBN 978-0742548398, 2007, p. xi
  398. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>Grabb, Edward; Baer, Douglas; Curtis, James (1999). "The Origins of American Individualism: Reconsidering the Historical Evidence". Canadian Journal of Sociology. University of Alberta. 24 (4): 511–533. doi:10.2307/3341789. ISSN 0318-6431. JSTOR 3341789.
  399. Marsh, Abigail. "Everyone Thinks Americans Are Selfish. They're Wrong.", The New York Times, May 26, 2021. (in en-US) 
  400. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>Porter, Gayle (November 2010). "Work Ethic and Ethical Work: Distortions in the American Dream". Journal of Business Ethics. Springer. 96 (4): 535–550. doi:10.1007/s10551-010-0481-6. JSTOR 29789736. S2CID 143991044.
  401. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>Stephens, R.H. (September 1952). "The Role Of Competition In American Life". The Australian Quarterly. Australian Institute of Policy and Science. 24 (3): 9–14. JSTOR 41317686.
  402. World Giving Index 2022 (September 9, 2022).
  403. Country-level estimates of altruism.
  404. Marsh, Abigail (February 5, 2018). Could A More Individualistic World Also Be A More Altruistic One?.
  405. GROSS DOMESTIC PHILANTHROPY: An international analysis of GDP, tax and giving. Charities Aid Foundation (January 2016).
  406. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>Berghahn, Volker R. (February 1, 2010). "The debate on 'Americanization' among economic and cultural historians". Cold War History. 10 (1): 107–130. doi:10.1080/14682740903388566. ISSN 1468-2745. S2CID 144459911.
  407. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>Fergie, Dexter (March 24, 2022). "How American Culture Ate the World". The New Republic. ISSN 0028-6583. Retrieved July 3, 2022.
  408. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>Fiorina, Morris P.; Peterson, Paul E. (2010). The New American democracy (7th ed.). London: Longman. p. 97. ISBN 978-0-205-78016-7.
  409. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>Holloway, Joseph E. (2005). Africanisms in American culture (2nd ed.). Bloomington: Indiana University Press. pp. 18–38. ISBN 978-0-253-21749-3.
    <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>Johnson, Fern L. (2000). Speaking culturally : language diversity in the United States. Sage Publications. p. 116. ISBN 978-0-8039-5912-5.
  410. Clifton, Jon (March 21, 2013). More Than 100 Million Worldwide Dream of a Life in the U.S. More than 25% in Liberia, Sierra Leone, Dominican Republic want to move to the U.S.. Gallup.
  411. A Family Affair: Intergenerational Social Mobility across OECD Countries. OECD (2010).
  412. Understanding Mobility in America (April 26, 2006).
  413. U.S. lags behind peer countries in mobility (October 10, 2012).
  414. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>Gutfeld, Amon (2002). American Exceptionalism: The Effects of Plenty on the American Experience. Brighton and Portland: Sussex Academic Press. p. 65. ISBN 978-1-903900-08-6.
  415. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>Zweig, Michael (2004). What's Class Got To Do With It, American Society in the Twenty-First Century. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press. ISBN 978-0-8014-8899-3. Effects of Social Class and Interactive Setting on Maternal Speech. Education Resource Information Center.
  416. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>O'Keefe, Kevin (2005). The Average American. New York: PublicAffairs. ISBN 978-1-58648-270-1.
  417. 417.0 417.1 <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>Coleman, Gabriella (2013). Coding Freedom. Princeton University Press. pp. 10, 201. ISBN 978-0-691-14461-0.
  418. Held Dear In U.S., Free Speech Perplexing Abroad (September 19, 2012).
  419. Liptak, Adam (June 11, 2008). Hate speech or free speech? What much of West bans is protected in U.S.. The New York Times.
  420. Durkee, Alison (April 25, 2018). What if we didn't... have the First Amendment? (en).
  421. Wike, Richard. Americans more tolerant of offensive speech than others in the world (en-US).
  422. Gray, Alex (November 8, 2016). Freedom of speech: which country has the most? (en).
  423. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>Norris, Pippa (February 2023). "Cancel Culture: Myth or Reality?". Political Studies. 71 (1): 145–174. doi:10.1177/00323217211037023. ISSN 0032-3217. S2CID 238647612. As predicted, in post-industrial societies, characterized by predominately liberal social cultures, like the US, Sweden, and UK...
  424. 424.0 424.1 <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>Derks, Marco; van den Berg, Mariecke (2020). Public Discourses About Homosexuality and Religion in Europe and Beyond. Springer International Publishing. p. 338. ISBN 978-3-030-56326-4. ...(the United States and [Western] Europe) as "already in crisis" for their permissive attitudes toward nonnormative sexualities...
  425. Leveille, Dan (December 4, 2009). LGBT Equality Index: The most LGBT-friendly countries in the world. “13.) United States”
  426. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>Garretson, Jeremiah (2018). "A Transformed Society: LGBT Rights in the United States". The Path to Gay Rights: How Activism and Coming Out Changed Public Opinion. New York University Press. ISBN 978-1-4798-5007-5. In the late 1980s and early 1990s, a dramatic wave began to form in the waters of public opinion: American attitudes involving homosexuality began to change... The transformation of America's response to homosexuality has been — and continues to be — one of the most rapid and sustained shifts in mass attitudes since the start of public polling.
  427. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>Jelliffe, Robert A. (1956). Faulkner at Nagano. Tokyo: Kenkyusha, Ltd.
  428. Baym & Levine 2013, pp. 157–159.
  429. Lauter 1994a, pp. 503–509.
  430. Baym & Levine 2013, p. 163.
  431. Mulford, Carla. "Enlightenment Voices, Revolutionary Visions." In Lauter 1994a, pp. 705–707.
  432. Lauter 1994a, pp. 1228–1229.
  433. The Emergence of Transcendentalism. The University of Virginia.
  434. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>Coviello, Peter (2005). "Transcendentalism". The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Literature. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780195307726. Retrieved October 23, 2011 – via Oxford Reference Online.
  435. Baym & Levine 2013, pp. 444–447.
  436. Lauter 1994a, pp. 1228, 1233, 1260.
  437. Baym & Levine 2013, pp. 1269–1270.
  438. Lauter 1994b, pp. 8–10.
  439. Baym & Levine 2013, pp. 1271–1273.
  440. Lauter 1994b, p. 12.
  441. Baym & Levine 2013, pp. 1850–1851.
  442. Spillers, Hortense. "The New Negro Renaissance." In Lauter 1994b, pp. 1579–1585.
  443. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>Philipson, Robert (2006). "The Harlem Renaissance as Postcolonial Phenomenon". African American Review. 40 (1): 145–160. JSTOR 40027037.
  444. Baym & Levine 2013, pp. 2260–2261.
  445. Baym & Levine 2013, p. 2262.
  446. Lauter 1994b, pp. 1975–1977. "Literature of the Cold War".
  447. Baym & Levine 2013, pp. 2266–2267.
  448. "Streaming TV Services: What They Cost, What You Get", The New York Times, October 12, 2015. 
  449. Audio and Podcasting Fact Sheet. Pew Research Center (June 29, 2021).
  451. "History: NPR", NPR, June 20, 2013. 
  452. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>Shaffer, Brenda (2006). The Limits of Culture: Islam and Foreign Policy. MIT Press. p. 116. ISBN 978-0-262-19529-4.
  453. Spanish Newspapers in United States. W3newspapers.
  454. Spanish Language Newspapers in the USA : Hispanic Newspapers : Periódiscos en Español en los EE.UU.
  455. Top Sites in United States. Alexa (2021).
  456. Top countries and markets by video game revenues.
  457. California (CA) (en-US) (July 20, 2017).
  458. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>Saxon, Theresa (October 11, 2011). American Theatre: History, Context, Form. Edinburgh University Press. pp. 7–. ISBN 978-0-7486-3127-8. OCLC 1162047055.
  459. Meserve, Walter J. An Outline History of American Drama, New York: Feedback/Prospero, 1994.
  460. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>Londré, Felicia Hardison; Watermeier, Daniel J. (1998). The History of North American Theater: From Pre-Columbian Times to the Present. Continuum. ISBN 978-0-8264-1079-5. OCLC 1024855967.
  461. Stephen Watt, and Gary A. Richardson, American Drama: Colonial to Contemporary (1994).
  462. Staff (undated). "Who's Who". Archived December 23, 2016, at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved September 13, 2013.
  463. Güner, Fisun (8 February 2017). How American Gothic became an icon. BBC.
  464. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>Brown, Milton W. (1963). The Story of the Armory Show (2nd ed.). New York: Abbeville Press. ISBN 978-0-89659-795-2.
  465. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>Davenport, Alma (1991). The History of Photography: An Overview. UNM Press. p. 67. ISBN 978-0-8263-2076-6.
  466. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>Janson, Horst Woldemar; Janson, Anthony F. (2003). History of Art: The Western Tradition. Prentice Hall Professional. p. 955. ISBN 978-0-13-182895-7.
  467. Alfred Lester. "Letter: The Louvre: tourism on the grand scale", December 6, 1993. 
  468. Folk Music and Song: American Folklife Center: An Illustrated Guide (Library of Congress).
  469. Musical Crossroads: African American Influence on American Music (September 22, 2016).
  470. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>Winans, Robert B. (1976). "The Folk, the Stage, and the Five-String Banjo in the Nineteenth Century". The Journal of American Folklore. American Folklore Society. 89 (354): 407–437. doi:10.2307/539294. JSTOR 539294.
  471. Shi 2016, p. 378.
  472. 472.0 472.1 The Invention of the Electric Guitar. Smithsonian Institute (April 18, 2014).
  473. 473.0 473.1 <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>Biddle, Julian (2001). What Was Hot!: Five Decades of Pop Culture in America. New York: Citadel. p. ix. ISBN 978-0-8065-2311-8.
  474. Stoia, Nicholas (October 21, 2014). Early blues and country music. Oxford University Press.
  475. Bluegrass music (en).
  476. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>"No. 1 Bob Dylan". Rolling Stone. April 10, 2020. Retrieved January 29, 2021.
  477. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>Clayton Funk (August 16, 2016). "9. Neo-Expressionism, Punk, and Hip Hop Emerge". A Quick and Dirty Guide to Art, Music, and Culture. The Ohio State University.
  478. 2022 Year-End Music Industry Revenue Report (en-US).
  479. Eoin Hennessy (March 27, 2014). How American Music Took Over the World.
  480. 10 ways that Frank Sinatra changed the world (December 8, 2015).
  481. "Universal Music can't help falling for Elvis Presley, to manage song catalog", Reuters, April 12, 2022. 
  482. Michael Jackson's 'Thriller' First Ever 30X Multi-Platinum RIAA Certification. Recording Industry Association of America (December 16, 2015).
  483. Marcos, Carlos. "Madonna has been scandalizing people for 40 years, and nobody's going to stop her", El País, August 17, 2022. 
  484. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>"The 200 Greatest Singers of All Time". Rolling Stone. January 1, 2023. Retrieved January 2, 2023.
  485. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>"Prince Tribute: The Greatest Musical Talent of His Generation". Billboard. April 28, 2016. Retrieved March 17, 2020.
  486. "Taylor Swift and Beyoncé reporters wanted by biggest newspaper chain in US", September 14, 2023. 
  487. American Classics How seven everyday clothing items became American style staples.. CNN.
  488. John Caplin (September 1, 2021). Made In New York: The Future Of New York City's Historic Garment District. Forbes. “Spanning just about 20 square blocks between Times Square and Penn Station along Seventh Avenue (also known as "Fashion Avenue"), the vibrant and always-busy neighborhood has a long and rich history that has become synonymous with American fashion since its inception more than a century ago.”
  489. Beyond Trends: The Lasting Impact of Sustainable Fashion in the USA (en) (2023-10-09).
  490. Diana Juarez. "The Economic Impact of New York Fashion Week", October 4, 2023. 
  491. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>Annual Report of the Controller of the City of Los Angeles, California. ByOffice of Controller Los Angeles, CA (1914). 1914. Retrieved February 22, 2014.
  492. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>Report of the Auditor of the City of Los Angeles California of the Financial Affairs of the Corporation in Its Capacity as a City for the Fiscal Year. By Auditor's Office of Los Angeles, CA (1913). 1913. Retrieved February 22, 2014.
  493. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>"Nigeria surpasses Hollywood as world's second-largest film producer" (Press release). United Nations. May 5, 2009. Retrieved February 17, 2013.
  494. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>Kerrigan, Finola (2010). Film Marketing. Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann. p. 18. ISBN 978-0-7506-8683-9. Retrieved February 4, 2022.
  495. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>Davis, Glyn; Dickinson, Kay; Patti, Lisa; Villarejo, Amy (2015). Film Studies: A Global Introduction. Abingdon: Routledge. p. 299. ISBN 978-1-317-62338-0. Retrieved August 24, 2020.
  496. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>"John Landis Rails Against Studios: 'They're Not in the Movie Business Anymore'". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved January 24, 2015.
  497. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>Drowne, Kathleen Morgan; Huber, Patrick (2004). The 1920s. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 236. ISBN 978-0-313-32013-2.
  498. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>Kroon, Richard W. (2014). A/V A to Z: An Encyclopedic Dictionary of Media, Entertainment and Other Audiovisual Terms. McFarland. p. 338. ISBN 978-0-7864-5740-3.
  499. "Book explores Hollywood 'Golden Age' of the 1960s-'70s", June 3, 2011. 
  500. "Marilyn Monroe, the eternal shape shifter", August 5, 2012. 
  501. John Wayne, an American Icon. University of Southern California (August 8, 2008).
  502. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>Greven, David (2013). Psycho-Sexual: Male Desire in Hitchcock, De Palma, Scorsese, and Friedkin. University of Texas Press. p. 23. ISBN 978-0-292-74204-8.
  503. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>Morrison, James (1998). Passport to Hollywood: Hollywood Films, European Directors. SUNY Press. p. 11. ISBN 978-0-7914-3938-8.
  504. Seitz, Matt Zoller. "What's Next: Avengers, MCU, Game of Thrones, and the Content Endgame",, Ebert Digital LLC, April 29, 2019. 
  505. Hannah Avery (January 18, 2023). US streaming market growth continues, despite changes in the industry.
  506. Wheat Info.
  507. Traditional Indigenous Recipes. American Indian Health and Diet Project.
  508. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>Akenuwa, Ambrose (July 1, 2015). Is the United States Still the Land of the Free and Home to the Brave?. Lulu Press. pp. 92–94. ISBN 978-1-329-26112-9. Retrieved November 20, 2020.
  509. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>Sidney Wilfred Mintz (1996). Tasting Food, Tasting Freedom: Excursions Into Eating, Culture, and the Past. Beacon Press. pp. 134–. ISBN 978-0-8070-4629-6. Retrieved October 25, 2015.
  510. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>Diner, Hasia (2001). Hungering for America: Italian, Irish, and Jewish Foodways in the Age of Migration. Cmabridge: Harvard University Press. p. 1.
  511. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>Poe, Tracy N. (February 1999). "The Origins of Soul Food in Black Urban Identity: Chicago, 1915-1947". American Studies International. 37 (1): 5.
  512. Cawthon, Haley (December 31, 2020). KFC is America's favorite fried chicken, data suggests.
  513. Russell, Joan (May 23, 2016). How Pizza Became America's Favorite Food.
  514. Klapthor, James N. (August 23, 2003). What, When, and Where Americans Eat in 2003. Newswise/Institute of Food Technologists.
  515. Our Story: CIA History | Culinary Institute of America (en).
  516. Averbuch, Bonnie. "Attention Food Entrepreneurs: School's Back in Business", Food Tank, September 2015. 
  517. 518.0 518.1 Brownfield, Andy (20 March 2020). Cincinnati restaurants ask feds for coronavirus bailout.
  518. Ramirez, Elva. The Restaurant Industry Needs A Coronavirus Bailout. Will They Get It? (en).
  519. Noguchi, Yuki (22 March 2020). Closed All At Once: Restaurant Industry Faces Collapse (en).
  520. Restaurant industry reeling from coronavirus (en).
  521. Restaurants (en).
  522. United States Department of Agriculture "Global Wine Report August 2006 Archived April 8, 2008, at the Wayback Machine", pp. 7-9.
  523. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>Birchell, D.B.; Steel, G. (2013). New Mexico Wine: An Enchanting History. American Palate Series (in Italian). American Palate. ISBN 978-1-60949-643-2. Retrieved November 15, 2019.
  524. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>New Mexico. Office of Cultural Affairs (1995). Enchanted Lifeways: The History, Museums, Arts & Festivals of New Mexico. New Mexico Magazine. ISBN 978-0-937206-39-3. Retrieved November 15, 2019.
  525. T. Stevenson, The Sotheby's Wine Encyclopedia Fourth Edition, p. 462, Dorling Kindersly, 2005 <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>ISBN 0-7566-1324-8.
  526. J. Robinson, ed. The Oxford Companion to Wine, Third Edition, p. 719; Oxford University Press, 2006, <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>ISBN 0-19-860990-6.
  527. When Was the First Drive-Thru Restaurant Created?.
  528. Karen DeBres, "A Cultural Geography of McDonald's UK," Journal of Cultural Geography, 2005
  529. "Why McDonald's in France Doesn't Feel Like Fast Food", January 24, 2012. 
  530. Sports. Gallup, Inc. (September 25, 2007).
  531. Krasnoff, Lindsay Sarah. "How the NBA went global", December 26, 2017. 
  532. Liss, Howard. Lacrosse (Funk & Wagnalls, 1970) pg 13.
  533. Global sports market to hit $141 billion in 2012 (June 18, 2008).
  534. Krane, David K. (October 30, 2002). Professional Football Widens Its Lead Over Baseball as Nation's Favorite Sport. Harris Interactive. MacCambridge, Michael (2004). America's Game: The Epic Story of How Pro Football Captured a Nation. New York: Random House. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>ISBN 978-0-375-50454-9.
  535. Guliza, Anthony (August 14, 2019). How the NFL took over America in 100 years. ESPN.
  536. As American as Mom, Apple Pie and Football? Football continues to trump baseball as America's Favorite Sport (January 16, 2014).
  537. What Would the End of Football Look Like?. Grantland/ESPN (February 9, 2012).
  538. "Sports Illustrated: NCAA Reports $1.1 Billion in Revenues", March 7, 2018. 
  539. Passion for College Football Remains Robust. National Football Foundation (March 19, 2013).
  540. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>Rosandich, Thomas (2002). "Collegiate Sports Programs: A Comparative Analysis". Education. Project Innovation Austin LLC. 122 (3): 471.
  541. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>Schaus, Gerald P.; Wenn, Stephen R. (February 9, 2007). Onward to the Olympics: Historical Perspectives on the Olympic Games. Wilfrid Laurier University Press. p. 224. ISBN 978-0-88920-505-5.
  542. Greatest Sporting Nation.
  543. "1,000 times gold – The thousand medals of Team USA – Washington Post". 
  544. Chase, Chris. "The 10 most fascinating facts about the all-time Winter Olympics medal standings", USA Today, February 7, 2014.  Loumena, Dan. "With Sochi Olympics approaching, a history of Winter Olympic medals", Los Angeles Times, February 6, 2014. 
  545. Carlisle, Jeff (April 6, 2020). MLS Year One, 25 seasons ago: The Wild West of training, travel, hockey shootouts and American soccer. ESPN.
  546. Wamsley, Laurel. "The U.S. cities hosting the 2026 World Cup are announced", NPR, June 16, 2022. 
  547. Gerson, Aria. "Impact of 1999 Women's World Cup went far beyond Brandi Chastain's iconic goal", USA Today, July 10, 2020. Retrieved on February 14, 2024. 


<templatestyles src="Refbegin/styles.css" />

  • <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>Baym, Nina; Levine, Robert S., eds. (2013). The Norton Anthology of American Literature (Shorter eighth. ed.). New York, NY: W.W. Norton. ISBN 978-0-393-91885-4.
  • <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>Bianchine, Peter J.; Russo, Thomas A. (1992). "The Role of Epidemic Infectious Diseases in the Discovery of America". Allergy and Asthma Proceedings. 13 (5): 225–232. doi:10.2500/108854192778817040. PMID 1483570.

"Country Profile: United States of America", BBC News, April 22, 2008. 

Hayes, Nick. "Looking back 20 years: Who deserves credit for ending the Cold War?", November 6, 2009. 

File:Definition of Free Cultural Works logo notext.svg This article incorporates text from a free content work. Licensed under CC BY-SA IGO 3.0 (license statement/permission). Text taken from World Food and Agriculture – Statistical Yearbook 2023Template:Zwsp, FAO, FAO.

External links[]

<templatestyles src="Plainlist/styles.css"></templatestyles><templatestyles src="Module:Sidebar/styles.css"></templatestyles>


  • Official U.S. Government web portal – gateway to government sites
  • House – official website of the United States House of Representatives
  • Senate – official website of the United States Senate
  • White House – official website of the President of the United States
  • [[[:Template:SCOTUS URL]] Supreme Court] – official website of the Supreme Court of the United States